nep-dev New Economics Papers
on Development
Issue of 2021‒09‒06
eleven papers chosen by
Jacob A. Jordaan
Universiteit Utrecht

  1. The Workforce of Clientelism: The Case of Local Officials in the Party Machine By Shenoy, Ajay; Zimmermann, Laura V.
  2. The Influence of Parental and Grandparental Education in the Transmission of Human Capital By Hector Moreno
  3. A 'Ghetto' of One's Own: Communal Violence, Residential Segregation and Group Education Outcomes in India By Kalra, Aarushi
  4. Why Is Energy Access Not Enough for Choosing Clean Cooking Fuels? Sustainable Development Goals and Beyond By Kapsalyamova, Zhanna; Mishra, Ranjeeta; Kerimray, Aiymgul; Karymshakov, Kamalbek; Azhgaliyeva, Dina
  5. Are smallholder farmers credit constrained? evidence on demand and supply constraints of credit in Ethiopia and Tanzania By Balana, B.; Mekonnen, D.; Haile, B.; Hagos, Fitsum; Yimam, S.; Ringler, C.
  6. Strengthening Teacher Support for Students to Improve Math Learning: Empirical Evidence on A Structured Pedagogy Program in El Salvador By Takao Maruyama
  7. Voter coercion and pro-poor redistribution in rural Mexico By Dragan Filipovich; Miguel Niño-Zarazúa; Alma Santillán Hernández
  8. Who benefits from farmer-led irrigation expansion in Ethiopia?. By Kafle, Kashi; Omotilewa, Oluwatoba; Leh, Mansoor
  9. Economic growth, renewable and nonrenewable electricity consumption: A fresh evidence from a panel sample of African countries By Espoir, Delphin Kamanda; Sunge, Regret; Bannor, Frank
  10. Impacts of agricultural produce cess (tax) reform options in Tanzania By RICOME Aymeric; ELOUHICHI Kamel; GOMEZ Y PALOMA Sergio
  11. Impacts of Small-Scale Irrigation in Niger By TILLIE Pascal; ELOUHICHI Kamel; GOMEZ Y PALOMA Sergio

  1. By: Shenoy, Ajay; Zimmermann, Laura V.
    Abstract: Local politicians can function as crucial intermediaries between voters and party bosses in a clientelistic network. We study their role by matching data on 300 million welfare payments in the Indian state of West Bengal to village-level election returns. Local politicians systematically misallocate resources based on party loyalty and successfully deliver votes to their national co-partisans. Politicians are compensated for successful mobilization through a performance bonus immediately after the national election. The (promise of) increased compensation from government funds induces opposition candidates to switch to the ruling party in strategically important local councils, bringing them under its control.
    JEL: D72 D73 H53
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Hector Moreno (Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper examines the influence of parental and grandparental education in the transmission of human capital. A natural experimental set-up, from a regional conflict that occurred in 1926 is exploited to instrument years of schooling of the grandparents' generation whereas local labour market indicators at adolescence serve as an instrument for the education of the parents' generation. Using a nationally representative Mexican survey that gathers detailed information on three generations, the paper shows that accounting for endogeneity reveals significantly more inter-generational mobility rather than ignoring it. The paper also documents greater persistence of family background in the older pair of parent-child links, i.e. grandparent-parent, than in the younger pair, i.e. parent-grandchildren. Results show that the direct influence of parental education on the grandchildren's education is so dominant that the impact of grand-parental education fades away once accounting for parental education.
    Keywords: multigenerational, mobility, education, Mexico
    JEL: I21 I24 J62
    Date: 2021–08
  3. By: Kalra, Aarushi
    Abstract: How does ethnic violence and subsequent segregation shape children's lives? Using exogenous variation in communal violence due to a Hindu nationalist campaign tour across India, I show that violence displaces Muslims to segregated neighbourhoods. Surprisingly, I find that post-event, Muslim primary education levels are higher in cities that were more susceptible to violence. For cohorts enrolling after the riots, the probability of attaining primary education decreases by 2.3% every 100 kilometres away from the campaign route. I exploit differences in the planned and actual route to show that this is due to greater spatial cohesion within communities threatened by violence.
    Date: 2021–08–21
  4. By: Kapsalyamova, Zhanna (Asian Development Bank Institute); Mishra, Ranjeeta (Asian Development Bank Institute); Kerimray, Aiymgul (Asian Development Bank Institute); Karymshakov, Kamalbek (Asian Development Bank Institute); Azhgaliyeva, Dina (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: The transition to sustainable energy requires an assessment of drivers of the use of clean and dirty fuels for cooking. Literature highlights the importance of access to modern fuel for switching from dirty fuels. Though access to cleaner fuels such as electricity promotes clean fuel use, it does not necessarily lead to a complete transition to the use of modern fuels. Households continue using traditional fuels in addition to modern fuels. We explain the choice of dirty cooking fuels even when access to electricity is provided. We use nationally representative household survey data to study the household energy use decisions in three middle-income countries, India, Kazakhstan, and the Kyrgyz Republic. We discuss the role of access to natural gas, free fuel, convenience or multi-use of fuels determined by the heating system installed, built-in environment, and other socioeconomic factors in household fuel choice for cooking. The results show that access to natural gas increases the likelihood of opting for natural gas, while the availability of free fuel in rural areas and the coal-based heating system promote the use of solid fuels.
    Keywords: cooking fuel; fuel choices; energy access; multiple fuel use; Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs); Zhanna Kapsalyamova
    JEL: Q31 Q41 Q48
    Date: 2021–03–18
  5. By: Balana, B.; Mekonnen, D.; Haile, B.; Hagos, Fitsum (International Water Management Institute (IWMI)); Yimam, S.; Ringler, C.
    Abstract: Credit constraint is considered by many as one of the key barriers to adoption of modern agricultural technologies, such as chemical fertilizer, improved seeds, and irrigation technologies, among smallholders. Past research and much policy discourse associates agricultural credit constraints with supply-side factors, such as limited access to credit sources or high costs of borrowing. However, demand-side factors, such as risk-aversion and financial illiteracy among borrowers, as well as high transaction costs, can also play important roles in credit-rationing for smallholders. Using primary survey data from Ethiopia and Tanzania, this study examines the nature of credit constraints facing smallholders and the factors that affect credit constraints. In addition, we assess whether credit constraints are gender-differentiated. Results show that demand-side credit constraints are at least as important as supply-side factors in both countries. Women are more likely to be credit constrained (from both the supply and demand sides) than men. Based on these findings, we suggest that policies should focus on addressing both supply- and demand-side credit constraints, including through targeted interventions to reduce risk, such as crop insurance and gender-sensitive policies to improve women’s access to credit.
    Keywords: Agricultural credit; Loans; Smallholders; Farmers; Supply balance; Constraints; Households; Gender; Women; Socioeconomic environment; Technology transfer; Adoption; Microfinance; Financial institutions; Risk factors; Policies; Small scale systems; Irrigation; Econometric models
    Date: 2020
  6. By: Takao Maruyama
    Abstract: While recent debates on educational development focus on the learning crisis in primary education, the crisis in lower secondary education level is equally profound. Around 58 percent of school-age children worldwide enrolled in lower secondary education are not reaching the minimum proficiency level in mathematics. One of the approaches to improve student learning is a structured pedagogy program that provides schools with teaching and learning materials and other related interventions. The impact of teaching and learning materials on student learning depends upon the support of teachers for students. This study investigates the impact of additional components in a structured pedagogy program that tried to strengthen support of teachers to improve student math learning at the lower secondary level in El Salvador through a randomized controlled trial. The study tracked the same students for two years. While the average one-year impact of the additional component is estimated at around 0.18 standard deviations of test scores, the impact did not persist when the difference of interventions between the treatment and control groups disappeared in the second year of this research. Furthermore, a causal mediation analysis is conducted to investigate the possible causal path of the additional interventions on student math learning.
    Keywords: Educational Development, Math learning, Lower secondary education, Latin America and Impact evaluation
    Date: 2021–07
  7. By: Dragan Filipovich; Miguel Niño-Zarazúa; Alma Santillán Hernández
    Abstract: Voter coercion is a recurrent threat to pro-poor redistribution in young democracies. In this study we focus on Mexico's paradigmatic Progresa-Oportunidades-Prospera (POP) programme. We investigate whether local mayors exploited POP to coerce voters, and if so, what effect these actions had on the municipal incumbent's vote.
    Keywords: Voting, Clientelism, Conditional cash transfers, Rural poverty, Mexico
    Date: 2021
  8. By: Kafle, Kashi (International Water Management Institute (IWMI)); Omotilewa, Oluwatoba (International Water Management Institute (IWMI)); Leh, Mansoor (International Water Management Institute (IWMI))
    Abstract: Despite increasing popularity of farmer-led irrigation in Ethiopia, little is known about socio-economics of farmers who receive public support in accelerating its expansion. We investigate this question by combining spatial land suitability for groundwater- and solar irrigation with pre-existing socioeconomic data. We find that if public support in farmer-led irrigation expansion were to be provided to farmers who own land areas that are also spatially highly suitable for irrigation, high-value crop cultivators and wealthier farmers would most likely benefit from such investments. Specifically, we find evidence that farmers in land areas more suitable for groundwater irrigation cultivated more high value crops such as vegetables, fruits, and cash crops. Cultivation of staple crops such as cereals, oilseeds, legumes and root crops were negatively associated with groundwater irrigation suitability. In addition, we find a positive correlation between farmers’ wealth status (measured by consumption expenditure, asset index, and land size) and groundwater irrigation suitability. Controlling for regional differences and current irrigation coverage, one percent increase in irrigation suitability score was associated with 0.2% increase in per-capita consumption expenditure. Land areas that were suitable for irrigation were more likely to belong to large-holders than smallholders. Results imply that policies which aim to facilitate farmer-led irrigation development in Ethiopia should not rely only on spatial suitability for irrigation. Household socio-economics and existing agricultural practices are equally important.
    Keywords: Groundwater irrigation; Farmer managed irrigation systems; Socioeconomic environment; Land suitability; Solar energy; Agricultural practices; Crops; Diversification; Cultivation; Land use; Pumps; Households; Living standards; Population density; Farmer-led irrigation; Investment
    Date: 2020
  9. By: Espoir, Delphin Kamanda; Sunge, Regret; Bannor, Frank
    Abstract: Energy transition has imposed a policy priority dilemma between economic growth and global warming mitigation. Existing studies in Africa have examined the impact of energy sources on growth but overlooked the differences across countries and regions. This study seeks to achieve two research objectives. First, it examines and compares the impact of renewable electricity consumption (REC) and nonrenewable electricity consumption (NREC) on growth in 48 African countries between 1980 and 2018. The study uses the recent panel estimators of cross-sectional dependence, slope heterogeneity, and cointegration. For the short and long-run marginal effects, the Pooled Mean Group estimator is used. Second, the analysis is extended to account for the heterogeneous effects of energy among African countries in four regional economic communities (EAC, COMESA, SADC, and ECOWAS). Here, we use the random-coefficients linear regression and kernel-based regularized least squares machine learning algorithm. The findings are as follows: (1) there is cointegration amongst the variables, (2) for the entire sample, both REC and NREC have positive and significant effects on growth, but NREC has an enormous impact, (3) the marginal effects of REC and NREC differ across African regions. Given the energy transition dilemma, there is a need for public-private partnership investments to bring a balanced mix between NREC and REC. Also, the heterogeneity suggests that a one-size-fit-all policy designed to increase growth through REC may not yield the same outcome in Africa. Therefore, while policies should speak to the common global agenda, there is a need to internalise and localise the strategies in each country and/or region.
    Keywords: Renewable energy consumption,Economic growth,Climate change,Africa
    JEL: O47 O55 Q42 Q54
    Date: 2021
  10. By: RICOME Aymeric (European Commission - JRC); ELOUHICHI Kamel; GOMEZ Y PALOMA Sergio (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: This report presents the results of an impact analysis of several reform options of the agricultural produce cess in Tanzania. The produce cess is a levy charged by Local Governments Authorities (LGAs) on the value of the marketed agricultural production. This analysis is achieved using a micro-economic model applied to a representative sample of 3134 farm-households spread out over all the country coming from the World Bank-LSMS-ISA surveys. The potential effects of the simulated reform options on land use, production, input use, farm income, LGAs revenues and some food security related indicators are presented and discussed.
    Keywords: Agriculture - Policy assessment - Tanzania
    Date: 2020–04
  11. By: TILLIE Pascal (European Commission - JRC); ELOUHICHI Kamel; GOMEZ Y PALOMA Sergio (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: In Niger, one of the key objectives of agricultural policy is to promote the development of small-scale irrigation infrastructure in order to diversify agricultural production, extend the growing season, increase land productivity and secure farmers’ incomes. Small-scale irrigation is regarded as a possible alternative to large-scale collective schemes because it is cheaper to set up and maintain and easier to manage. This report presents the results of modelling the impacts of a small-scale irrigation development programme, known as the Stratégie pour la Petite Irrigation au Niger (Small-Scale Irrigation Strategy in Niger, or SPIN for its acronym in French), in terms of land use, agricultural production, income generation and poverty reduction. This analysis was conducted using the FSSIM-Dev (Farm System Simulator for Developing Countries) model and data obtained from a representative national sample of farm households. FSSIM-Dev is a comparative static model using a positive mathematical programming (PMP) approach tailored to producer-consumer households and to the particular aspects of the sub-Saharan rural economy. Applied to each farm household included in a representative sample for Niger, FSSIM-Dev allows for capturing all the heterogeneous impacts of a development programme such as the SPIN. The modelling results show that increasing the irrigated area in the dry season by 47,000 hectares, i.e. 44%, which is in line with the SPIN objectives, would bring significant benefits to Nigerien farm households. The average farm income would increase by 12% and income inequalities between households in rural areas would reduce by around five Gini points, i.e. approximately 9%. Increasing the irrigated area would also create many new jobs and reduce the rural poverty rate by more than one point (from 52.4% to 50.8%). The estimated cost of such a programme would be between 47 billion CFA francs and 189 billion CFA francs, to be split between farmers and the State.
    Keywords: Irrigation, Water, Smallholder, Agricultural Policy, Niger, Policy Impact Assessment
    Date: 2020–07

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