nep-dev New Economics Papers
on Development
Issue of 2021‒07‒26
twenty-one papers chosen by
Jacob A. Jordaan
Universiteit Utrecht

  1. Beyond the Income Effect of International Trade on Ethnic Wars in Africa By Fabien Candau; T Gbandi; G Guepie
  2. Innovation and employment in Sub-Saharan Africa By Porath, Daniel; Nabachwa, Sarah; Agasha, Ester; Kijjambu, Nsambu Frederick
  3. Child health inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa By Pérez-Mesa, David; Marrero, Gustavo A.; Darias-Curvo, Sara
  4. Intra-Africa agricultural trade, governance quality and agricultural total factor productivity: Evidence from a panel vector autoregressive model By Espoir, Delphin Kamanda; Bannor, Frank; Sunge, Regret
  5. Using Bank Savings Product Design for Empowering Women and Agricultural Development By Galdo, Jose C.
  6. Reassessing the Impact of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program: Results of the Third Wave Impact Evaluation By Orbeta, Aniceto C. Jr.; Melad, Kris Ann M.; Araos, Nina Victoria V.
  7. Longer-term Effects of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program: Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial Cohort Analysis (Third Wave Impact Evaluation) By Orbeta, Aniceto C. Jr.; Melad, Kris Ann M.; Araos, Nina Victoria V.
  8. Farm-level effects of the 2019 Ghana planting for food and jobs program: An analysis of household survey data By Asante, Felix Ankomah; Bawakyillenuo, Simon
  9. Panel threshold effect of climate variability on agricultural output in Eastern African countries By Mubenga-Tshitaka, Jean-Luc; Gelo, Dambala; Dikgang, Johane; Mwamba, Muteba
  10. Digital technology and productivity of informal enterprises: Empirical evidence from Nigeria By Michael Danquah; Solomon Owusu
  11. Mismatch between soil nutrient requirements and fertilizer applications: Implications for yield responses in Ethiopia By Abay, Kibrom A.; Abay, Mehari Hiluf; Amare, Mulubrhan; Berhane, Guush; Betemariam, Ermias
  12. Vulnerability to climate change and communal conflicts: uncovering pathways By Sara Balestri; Raul Caruso
  13. Explaining Caste-based Digital Divide in India By R Vaidehi; A Bheemeshwar Reddy; Sudatta Banerjee
  14. Female education and marriage in Pakistan: The role of financial shocks and marital customs By Sarah Khan
  15. Financing Structure, Micro and Small Enterprises’ Performance, and Woman Entrepreneurship in Indonesia By Zeinab Elbeltagy; Zenathan Hasannudin
  16. Vulnerability to Income Poverty in the Philippines: An Examination of Trends from 2003 to 2015 By Vizmanos, Jana Flor V.; Albert, Jose Ramon G,
  17. The Effect of School Voucher Spending on Initial Earnings By Correa, Juan A.; Parro, Francisco; Sánchez, Rafael
  18. Heterogeneous effects of agricultural technical assistance in Colombia By Nicolás Arturo Torres Franco; Eleonora Dávalos; Leonardo Fabio Morales
  19. Sharing tips for rice, chicken and vegetable production: Do voice messages and social learning complement extension services? By Almanzar, Miguel; de Brauw, Alan; Nakasone, Eduardo
  20. Teacher Compensation and Structural Inequality: Evidence from Centralized Teacher School Choice in Perú By Matteo Bobba; Tim Ederer; Gianmarco León-Ciliotta; Christopher A. Neilson; Marco Nieddu
  21. Process Evaluation of the Department of Health Human Resources for Health Deployment Program By Abrigo, Michael R.M.; Opiniano, Gina A.; Tam, Zhandra C.

  1. By: Fabien Candau (TREE - Transitions Energétiques et Environnementales - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); T Gbandi (TREE - Transitions Energétiques et Environnementales - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); G Guepie (UNECA - United Nations Economic Commission for Africa - United Nations)
    Abstract: We use detailed information on the location of agricultural and mining production to approximate international trade for different ethnic groups in order to study its impact on ethnic conflicts in Africa between 1993 and 2010. The goal is to go beyond the income effects of trade to study the residual effects of globalization on conflicts. We find that once we control for income but also for a wide variety of different factors in conflicts (using political variables and fixed effects), the international trade by ethnic groups has a pacific impact on conflicts. While this peaceful impact of trade is mainly found in the trade in agricultural products, it does not have a significant impact in the international trade in mining products. Finally, we propose an original two-step analysis showing that exports significantly reduce conflicts by affecting time-varying national characteristics. We interpret this result as an indication that globalization in Africa has participated in the formation of new national identities with peaceful effects between ethnic groups.
    Keywords: Ethnic Wars,Regional Trade,Globalization,National Identity,Africa
    Date: 2021–06–18
  2. By: Porath, Daniel; Nabachwa, Sarah; Agasha, Ester; Kijjambu, Nsambu Frederick
    Abstract: The debate on the role of innovation in employment growth is still inconclusive with the available literature focusing largely on industrialised economies. With this concern, we examine the potential of innovations in creating permanent full-time jobs in registered manufacturing companies in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) by fitting the model of Van Reenen (1997) to a two-period panel of 687 manufacturing firms. Our paper is the first to examine the impact of innovation on employment with a particular focus on SSA and the first to apply a panel data approach to a larger set of developing countries. Our findings indicate that in the past, innovative firms created more jobs compared to non-innovative ones when controlling for sales, wages, time-invariant firms and country specifics. Likening the results with emerging or developing economies outside of SSA, we find that the effect is considerably larger in SSA than in other regions. As a consequence, we recommend that SSA governments strengthen their technological adaption and adoption mechanisms in their manufacturing sectors to foster innovations. Nonetheless, as a way to discourage imitations (which may not be well aligned to the production demands in SSA), governments are encouraged to invest in sector-specific research and development.
    Keywords: Innovation,Employment,Sub Saharan Africa,Panel model,Enterprise Survey
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Pérez-Mesa, David; Marrero, Gustavo A.; Darias-Curvo, Sara
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the understanding of child health inequalities in Sub-Saharan African (SSA), the poorest and the second most unequal region in the world. Since health inequality begins at birth, correcting it during childhood is crucial to improving future opportunities for development and fighting against other forms of inequality during adulthood. For 33 SSA countries, we estimate child health inequality by cohorts: from 0-1 up to 4-5 years old. We pay special attention to the part of inequality explained by factors widely used in the literature, such as family background, the mother socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics, household structure, household facilities and the region of residence. Our starting measure of child health is the standardized height-for-age z-score. We show that child health inequality is systematically lesser for the older cohort than for the younger one. However, the aforementioned set of factors is impeding a further reduction in health inequality, as far as the share caused by these factors has risen along the age distribution in more than 80% of the countries. We do not find evidences that these results are caused by a mortality-selection bias. Instead, we find that family background, followed by household facilities and the region of residence contribute to explaining the differences observed in child health inequality along the age distribution in SSA.
    Keywords: Child health inequality, child age distribution, Sub-Saharan Africa, family background, anthropometric.
    JEL: I14 I15 O10 P52
    Date: 2021–07
  4. By: Espoir, Delphin Kamanda; Bannor, Frank; Sunge, Regret
    Abstract: The African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) agreement was signed by at least 54 African countries and has the potential of lifting up to 30 million Africans out of extreme poverty, according to the World Bank (2020). The agricultural sector is regarded as a fertile ground for achieving the AfCFTA ambitions. However, agricultural productivity in Africa is low and falling. It is argued that intra-Africa trade and good governance can help increase agricultural productivity. Nonetheless, both are low, casting doubt on their ability to enhance agricultural productivity. This study attempts for the first time to examine the causal relationship between the intra-Africa agricultural trade, governance quality, and the agricultural total factor productivity (ATFP) for 47 countries over the period 1995–2018. We extend the analysis to regional economic communities (RECs) to understand the diversity in this relationship within the continent. Using the panel VAR model in the generalized method of moment (GMM) estimation approach, our results suggest a long-run equilibrium relationship between the three variables. Specifically, the results indicate that at the African level, intra-Africa agricultural trade has a statistically positive effect on governance quality and ATFP. In contrast, good governance has positive and negative impacts on ATFP and trade, respectively. We also find that ATFP positively influences intra-Africa agricultural trade and governance. At the RECs level, our estimations show significant heterogeneity in the three variables’ impacts. Based on our findings, we recommend a rapid implementation of the AfCFTA agreement. However, we suggest that the implementation should be idiosyncratic to each region’s structural economies. Furthermore, we encourage the promotion of good governance, particularly in agriculture policy implementation.
    Keywords: Agricultural trade,agricultural total factor productivity,governance,PVAR
    JEL: C23 G38 O47 Q17
    Date: 2021
  5. By: Galdo, Jose C. (Carleton University)
    Abstract: This study examines whether the random allocation of single and joint saving accounts to cash crop farmers in rural Ethiopia is associated with changes in decision-making authority and control over resources that ultimately lead to changes in labor effort, schooling allocations, income, consumption, agricultural investments, and crop output. Women and children work more when joint deposit accounts are available. Likewise, meaningful effects on school participation are reported for girls. Consistent with posited channels of intrahousehold bargaining models, women from households assigned to the joint saving treatment group show significant gains in autonomy and control of savings resources, and financial empowerment. While we find substantial gains in subjective wellbeing for single and joint account experimental groups, no meaningful impacts on agricultural crop output, income, and consumption are found. However, a systematic decumulation of livestock assets is observed across households assigned to the joint account treatment group.
    Keywords: bank savings, agriculture markets, labor, schooling, women empowerment, RCT
    JEL: C93 D14 G21 J43 I21 O12 R20
    Date: 2021–06
  6. By: Orbeta, Aniceto C. Jr.; Melad, Kris Ann M.; Araos, Nina Victoria V.
    Abstract: The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (Pantawid Pamilya) remains the main social protection strategy of the government with its objective of breaking the intergenerational transmission of poverty by helping poor households invest in the health and education of their children. Previous impact evaluation studies of the program show that the program has been successful in keeping children healthy and in school. The third impact evaluation (IE Wave 3) aims to reassess the program's impact on short-term and intermediate outcomes on health, education, household welfare, and other sociobehavioral domains. The 3rd wave evaluation employs regression discontinuity design (RDD) to analyze program impact by comparing treatment (Pantawid beneficiaries) and comparison households (non-Pantawid beneficiaries) within specific bandwidths of distance from the poverty thresholds that determine program eligibility. In general, the results of the evaluation indicate that the program still shows desirable impacts on most of the target education and health outcomes of children and pregnant women. The results also show positive impacts on household welfare such as income and food security; large positive impacts on community participation, and awareness of basic means to mitigate vulnerabilities such as disaster preparedness among adults; and a strong impact on "grit" or determination of children. Nevertheless, some of the results are inconsistent with previous evaluations such as the negative impact on some nutrition outcomes, inconsistencies in the utilization of maternal health care services, and lack of significant reduction in child labor incidence. Recommendations put forward include strengthening and improving program monitoring and enforcement of health conditions, further study on the factors driving some of the unexpected results, the corresponding adjustment in the policies or incentives that the program provides—particularly in terms of reevaluating the value of the cash grant and taking advantage of the positive program impacts on the behavior of children and adults as a model and/or platform for other interventions. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from date of posting. Email
    Keywords: 4Ps, human capital, Pantawid Pamilya, cash transfers, regression discontinuity, impact evaluation
    Date: 2021
  7. By: Orbeta, Aniceto C. Jr.; Melad, Kris Ann M.; Araos, Nina Victoria V.
    Abstract: This study analyzes the longer-term "lock-in" effects of time-critical program inputs on education and health outcomes for specific cohorts of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (Pantawid) beneficiaries. The cohorts are known to benefit more from inputs received at critical points, particularly in their first 1000 days of life and from the age-appropriate start of schooling. The data, collected from November to December 2017, covered 2,265 households with children born between April 2009 and April 2013 from the original treatment and control barangays of the first impact evaluation of the program that used Randomized Control Trial design. Children and mothers in the original treatment areas are presumed to have received program benefits during the critical period while children and mothers in the control areas are presumed to have received benefits beyond the critical period. Results show that timely exposure to Pantawid inputs during the first 1000 days of life results in a lower prevalence of severe underweightedness, diarrhea, and fever among children. Positive program impact was observed for the age of start of schooling (Grade 1) and the cumulative number of years of delay in schooling. However, these results were not consistently observed in other estimations that control for confounding variables. The small impact of the program on level progression in primary school suggests that the control group was able to catch up with their counterparts in the treatment group. In general, the results of the study highlight the importance of providing program inputs together with a comprehensive package of supplementary interventions during the first 1000 days of life to achieve significant results in health and nutrition outcomes of children. Misconceptions on the start of schooling must also be addressed to ensure that children start school on time and avoid delays in progression through grade levels. <p>Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from date of posting. Email
    Keywords: health, 4Ps, nutrition, Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program, Pantawid Pamilya, cash transfers, RCT, cohort, lock-in effects
    Date: 2021
  8. By: Asante, Felix Ankomah; Bawakyillenuo, Simon
    Abstract: Ghana’s rising population, coupled with erratic weather patterns and soil nutrient deficiencies, pose a significant challenge to food crop production. In responding to universal calls for actions to end poverty, the Government of Ghana (GoG) launched the flagship Planting for Food and Jobs (PFJ) program in 2017. PFJ is designed to promote on-farm productivity through the intensification of fertilizer subsidies and adoption of improved seeds of targeted crops, thereby enabling job creation in agriculture and other interrelated sectors. Implemented by the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MoFA), the PFJ program works in concert with other existing agricultural programs and policies to achieve the universal goal of ending hunger, achieving food security, and improving nutrition by promoting efficient and sustainable intensification and climate-proofing of agriculture by 2030 (Sustainable Development Goal 2).
    Keywords: GHANA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; farms; agricultural extension; postharvest losses; crops; yields; seed; fertilizers; subsidies; crop production; jobs; food security; households; surveys
    Date: 2021
  9. By: Mubenga-Tshitaka, Jean-Luc; Gelo, Dambala; Dikgang, Johane; Mwamba, Muteba
    Abstract: Recent scientific literature shows that in many developing countries, variability in rainfall and temperature in growing season has distortional effects on agricultural output, especially when the variability is high. At what degree or threshold are these variabilities harmful to agricultural output in certain regions of Africa? In this study, we answer this research question using a dynamic panel threshold model on a panel dataset of East African countries for the period 1961 to 2016. We incorporate climate variables disaggregated into growing and non-growing seasons like in Abraha-Kahsay and Hansen (2016). The empirical results indicate that growing rainfall variability has significant effects on agricultural output. More specifically, we found a significant negative effect from rainfall variability in spring and summer, when precipitation exceeds thresholds of -0.533ml and -0.902ml respectively. We found no significant effect in fall. In the case of growing-season temperature variability, we found no significant effects. Policy implications are discussed.
    Keywords: adaptation policy, climate change, Eastern Africa, Dynamic panel threshold
    JEL: Q10 Q18 Q54
    Date: 2021–07–12
  10. By: Michael Danquah; Solomon Owusu
    Abstract: The lingering policy dilemma facing many governments in sub-Saharan Africa in recent years is what can be done in the short to medium term to boost the output and incomes of individuals and enterprises in the informal sector, given the size and persistence of the sector in the region. In this paper we examine the structural impact of access and usage of digital technology by informal enterprises on labour productivity. Using a sample of non-farm informal enterprises in Nigeria, we employ IV LASSO techniques to carry out our analysis.
    Keywords: Information technology, Informal sector, Productivity, Instrumental variable, Regression analysis, Nigeria
    Date: 2021
  11. By: Abay, Kibrom A.; Abay, Mehari Hiluf; Amare, Mulubrhan; Berhane, Guush; Betemariam, Ermias
    Abstract: Lack of accurate information about soil nutrient requirements coupled with limited access to appropriate fertilizers could lead to mismatch between soil nutrient requirements and fertilizer applications. Such anomalies and mismatches are likely to have important implications for agricultural productivity. In this paper we use experimental (spectral soil analysis) data from Ethiopia to examine farmers’ response to soil nutrient deficiencies and its implications for yield responses. We find that farmers’ response to macronutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) deficiencies is not always consistent with agronomic recommendations. For instance, we find that farmers in our sample are applying nitrogen fertilizers to soils lacking phosphorus, potentially due to lack of information on soil nutrient deficiencies or lack of access to appropriate fertilizers in rural markets. On the other hand, farmers respond to perceivably poor-quality soils and acidic soils by applying higher amount of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers per unit of land. We further show that such mismatches between fertilizer applications and soil macronutrient requirements are potentially yield-reducing. Those farmers matching their soil nutrient requirements and fertilizer application are likely to enjoy additional yield gains and the vice versa. Marginal yield responses associated with nitrogen (phosphorus) application increases with soil nitrogen (phosphorus) deficiency. Similarly, we find that farmers’ response to acidic soils is not yield-enhancing. These findings suggest that such mismatches may explain heterogeneities in marginal returns to chemical fertilizers and the observed low adoption rates of chemical fertilizers in sub-Saharan Africa. As such, these findings have important implications for improving input management practices and fertilizer diffusion strategies.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; nutrient deficiency; fertilizers; fertilizer application; soil deficiencies; soil; yields; mismatch; spectral soil analysis
    Date: 2021
  12. By: Sara Balestri; Raul Caruso
    Abstract: This research work provides new evidence about the effect of vulnerability to natural hazards on the likelihood of communal violence, by disentangling regional-specific pathways. We focus on Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and Southern/South-Eastern Asia (S-SEA) for the period 1995-2016, being these regions particularly exposed to climate effects and dominantly characterized by rain-fed and climate-sensitive agriculture. Relying on the ND-GAIN Vulnerability Index as multidimensional measure of propensity of human societies to be negatively impacted by climate change, we found robust evidence that greater vulnerability is conducive to a higher risk of communal violence. This result is consistent across the regions, and it remarks the fragility of SSA where levels of vulnerability are higher than those observed in S-SEA, on average. Overall, results suggest that policy efforts aimed at reducing vulnerability to natural hazards are powerful tools not only to make societies more resilient, but also more peaceful.
    JEL: D74 O13 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2021
  13. By: R Vaidehi; A Bheemeshwar Reddy; Sudatta Banerjee
    Abstract: With the increasing importance of information and communication technologies in access to basic services like education and health, the question of the digital divide based on caste assumes importance in India where large socioeconomic disparities persist between different caste groups. Studies on caste-based digital inequality are still scanty in India. Using nationally representative survey data, this paper analyzes the first-level digital divide (ownership of computer and access to the internet) and the second-level digital divide (individual's skill to use computer and the internet) between the disadvantaged caste group and the others. Further, this paper identifies the caste group-based differences in socioeconomic factors that contribute to the digital divide between these groups using a non-linear decomposition method. The results show that there exists a large first-level and second-level digital divide between the disadvantaged caste groups and others in India. The non-linear decomposition results indicate that the caste-based digital divide in India is rooted in historical socioeconomic deprivation of disadvantaged caste groups. More than half of the caste-based digital gap is attributable to differences in educational attainment and income between the disadvantaged caste groups and others. The findings of this study highlight the urgent need for addressing educational and income inequality between the different caste groups in India in order to bridge the digital divide.
    Date: 2021–06
  14. By: Sarah Khan
    Abstract: This project aims to explore the effect of wealth shocks on education and marriage for young women in Pakistan. Financial shocks are used to estimate the probability of dropping out of education and into marriage. Using the Pakistan Rural Household Panel survey for the years 2000-10, the effects of financial shocks on the probability of dropping out of education and into marriage are estimated for boys and girls in rural areas. Second, the returns to education in the marriage market are estimated using information on marital payments of dowry and brideprice.
    Keywords: Marriage customs, Shocks, early marriage, School dropout, School attendance
    Date: 2021
  15. By: Zeinab Elbeltagy (Intern, Macroeconomic and Financing for Development Division, UNESCAP); Zenathan Hasannudin (Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, UNESCAP)
    Abstract: Access to finance has been found crucial in influencing firms’ real activities and economic performance.This paper investigates the relationship between the financing structure and firm performance by explor-ing a unique panel dataset of 59,968 Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) operating in the manufacturingsector in Indonesia over the 2010-2015 period. We collected a rich set of information about source ofloans to assess the firm performance using yearly total factor productivity (TFP) and labor productivityof each firm. We then examined whether more financing options available to women entrepreneurshipimproves firm performance. Our results show that financial factors are highly decisive to firms’ TFPand labor productivity. The MSEs which have access to external formal financing directly improvesproductivity at the firm level. Moreover, the study finds a significant underperformance of firms ownedby women entrepreneurs compared to those owned by men entrepreneurs. Nevertheless, we found thatwomen entrepreneurs who have access to formal financing improve their firm’s performance. The effectsof finance on productivity are also linked to the firm’s ownership, education, size and age. Our resultsare robust as demonstrated through the use of different approaches. These results provide support forpolicymakers to alleviate credit constraints to enhance productivity of micro and small enterprises andespecially woman entrepreneurship in Indonesia.
    Keywords: Total factor productivity, inclusive financing, woman entrepreneurship
    JEL: G21 J16 L25 L26 N65
    Date: 2020–09
  16. By: Vizmanos, Jana Flor V.; Albert, Jose Ramon G,
    Abstract: This study continues previous work on estimating the vulnerability level of households to income poverty using a modified probit model based on income and other poverty correlates data sourced from the Family Income and Expenditure Survey, as well as the country’s official poverty lines. Past model specifications are improved by including data on price and climate shocks to welfare, as well as by generating individual assessments for urban and rural areas before combining the cross-section results, rather than using a common specification nationally as done previously. The vulnerability assessment in this study provides inputs to forward-looking interventions that build the resilience of households for preventing or reducing the likelihood of future poverty. The study emphasizes the importance of using both poverty and vulnerability estimates in programs and identifies differentiated actions for those highly vulnerable and relatively vulnerable to poverty.
    Keywords: poverty, Philippines, Family Income and Expenditure Survey, income vulnerability, modified probit model
    Date: 2020
  17. By: Correa, Juan A. (Universidad Andres Bello); Parro, Francisco (Universidad Adolfo Ibañez); Sánchez, Rafael (Universidad Diego Portales)
    Abstract: We quantify the effect of school voucher spending on initial earnings. We use administrative data on the monetary resources received by schools from a targeted voucher program implemented in Chile. We merge this dataset with education and labor market administrative records for the universe of students enrolled in the Chilean education system. We find that an increase of US$100 in the yearly expenditure of voucher resources per student raises initial earnings by 2.3%. However, we find that the positive effect of voucher spending only holds for private voucher schools that operate in local education markets with low enrollment concentration.
    Keywords: school vouchers, education spending, earnings
    JEL: H52 I22 I26 I28
    Date: 2021–07
  18. By: Nicolás Arturo Torres Franco; Eleonora Dávalos; Leonardo Fabio Morales
    Abstract: Small family farms account for 72 percent of the farms in the world. Most of these farms, in developing countries, face labor productivity gaps. One of the strategies to increase agricultural productivity focuses on implementing technical assistance programs. Using agriculture microdata, we estimate the marginal treatment effect of receiving technical assistance services. We find that technical assistance generates heterogeneous effects. On average, agricultural units receiving technical assistance increased their agricultural production by 50.4 percent. However, there is important heterogeneity of technical assistance’s effects across the production units’ unobserved and observed characteristics. **** RESUMEN: Las unidades familiares agrícolas representan el 72 por ciento de las unidades productoras agrícolas del mundo. La mayoría de estas unidades familiares, en países en desarrollo, enfrentan brechas de productividad laboral. Una de las estrategias para incrementar la productividad agrícola se centra en la implementación de programas de asistencia técnica. Utilizando microdatos agrícolas, estimamos el efecto marginal del tratamiento de recibir servicios de asistencia técnica. Encontramos que la asistencia técnica genera efectos heterogéneos. En promedio, las unidades agrícolas que recibieron asistencia técnica aumentaron su producción agrícola en un 50,4 por ciento. Sin embargo, existe una importante heterogeneidad de los efectos de la asistencia técnica en las características no observadas y observadas de las unidades de producción.
    Keywords: family farms, technical assistance, heterogeneous effects, Unidades agrícolas familiares, asistencia técnica, MTE
    JEL: Q12 Q16 Q18
    Date: 2021–07
  19. By: Almanzar, Miguel; de Brauw, Alan; Nakasone, Eduardo
    Abstract: Considerable resources are allocated to agricultural extension around the world, with questionable cost effectiveness. An obvious question is whether information and communication technologies can be used to push agricultural extension messages effectively at a lower cost. Based on a clustered randomized control trial, we evaluate a pilot in which farmers receive information about agricultural production on rice, vegetables, and chicken rearing via mobile phone voice messages. Our experimental design included groups of households without and with farmer group membership. We evaluate whether farmers received the information, learned it, shared it with non-recipients, and used it, and how the effects of the information campaign on these outcomes changes with being part of an existing farmer group and the proportion of the village population receiving information. We find farmers in the information treatment groups were more knowledgeable about the practices promoted, believe it helped them produce more, and shared it with others. The information campaign was more effective for rice and to a lesser extent chicken rearing than for vegetables. We do not find differential effects by farmer group membership. We find that the amount of information sent to the village increases information diffusion but the speed of sharing the information is similar across treatment groups and by different saturation rates. We conclude that targeted and simple information campaigns can help supplement the information needs of farmers in a cost-effective manner, independently of their participation in farmer groups or extension programs.
    Keywords: CAMBODIA; SOUTH EAST ASIA; ASIA; rice; poultry; chickens; vegetables; food production; agricultural extension; technology; networks; information transfer; agricultural production; technology adoption
    Date: 2021
  20. By: Matteo Bobba; Tim Ederer; Gianmarco León-Ciliotta; Christopher A. Neilson; Marco Nieddu
    Abstract: This paper studies how increasing teacher compensation at hard-to-staff schools can reduce inequality in access to qualified teachers. Leveraging an unconditional change in the teacher compensation structure in Peru, we first show causal evidence that increasing salaries at less desirable locations attracts better quality applicants and improves student test scores. We then estimate a model of teacher preferences over local amenities, school characteristics, and wages using geocoded job postings and rich application data from the nationwide centralized teacher assignment system. Our estimated model suggests that the current policy is both inefficient and not large enough to effectively undo the inequality of initial conditions that hard-to-staff schools and their communities face. Counterfactual analyses that incorporate equilibrium sorting effects characterize alternative wage schedules and quantify the cost of reducing structural inequality in the allocation of teacher talent across schools.
    Keywords: Inequality, teacher school choice, teacher wages, matching with contracts
    JEL: J31 J45 I21 C93 O15
    Date: 2021–07
  21. By: Abrigo, Michael R.M.; Opiniano, Gina A.; Tam, Zhandra C.
    Abstract: The Philippine national government, through the Department of Health (DOH), has a long tradition of augmenting the supply of healthcare workers in underserved areas. Even with the adoption of the Local Government Code in 1991, which shifts the mandate of DOH from being the sole provider of health services to being the provider of technical services for health, DOH continues to deploy healthcare professionals throughout the country. Over the last decade, the national health resources for health (HRH) deployment program has expanded from a relatively small program with budgetary support of less than PHP 200 million with less than 500 deployed health professionals in 2010 to a massive program with budgetary support of PHP 10 billion and almost 30,000 health care workers in 2020. This process evaluation aims to assess the DOH-HRH deployment program design and logic and document its implementation vis-a-vis its stated design. The study finds that while the program has many advantages over individual local governments in reallocating HRH across geographic boundaries, there are both design and implementation challenges that may negatively impact the experiences of deployed healthcare workers, which, in turn, may reflect negatively on the program. The study also provides some actionable recommendations specific to these issues to improve the program. <p> Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from date of posting. Email
    Keywords: process evaluation, health resources for health, deployment program, Department of Health
    Date: 2021

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