nep-dev New Economics Papers
on Development
Issue of 2019‒06‒10
twenty papers chosen by
Jacob A. Jordaan
Universiteit Utrecht

  1. Can Transparency and Accountability Programs Improve Health? Experimental Evidence from Indonesia and Tanzania By Arkedis, Jean; Creighton, Jessica; Dixit, Akshay; Fung, Archon; Kosack, Stephen; Levy, Dan; Tolmie, Courtney
  2. Illegal Mining and Human Capital Accumulation: Evidence from the Colombian Gold Rush By Leonardo Bonilla-Mejía
  3. Civil armed conflicts: the impact of the interaction between climate change and agricultural potential By Jonathan Goyette; Maroua Smaoui
  4. Childcare and Maternal Employment: Evidence from Vietnam By Dang, Hai-Anh H.; Hiraga, Masako; Nguyen, Cuong Viet
  5. Informal Sector and Mobile Financial Services in Developing Countries: Does Financial Innovation Matter? By Luc Jacolin; Massil Keneck; Alphonse Noah
  6. Labor Market Outcomes and Early Schooling: Evidence from School Entry Policies Using Exact Date of Birth By Pedro Cavalcante Oliveira; Daniel Duque
  7. Experience of Communal Conflicts and Inter-group Lending By Raymond Fisman; Arkodipta Sarkar; Janis Skrastins; Vikrant Vig
  8. Effects of information and seedling provision on tree planting and survival in smallholder oil palm plantations By Rudolf, Katrin; Romero, Miriamt; Asnawi, Rosyani; Irawan, Bambang; Wollni, Meike
  9. Resource Transfers to Local Governments: Political Manipulation and Household Responses in West Bengal By Pranab Bardhan; Sandip Mitra; Dilip Mookherjee; Anusha Nath
  10. Enduring Gendered Mobility Patterns in Contemporary Senegal By Isabelle Chort; Philippe de Vreyer; Thomas Zuber
  11. The Effectiveness of Development Aid for Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa By John Ssozi; Simplice A. Asongu; Voxi Amavilah
  12. Formal Financial Inclusion in Cambodia: What are the Key Barriers and Determinants? By SAM, Vichet
  13. Effects of marketing contracts and resource-providing contracts in the African small farm sector: Insights from oil palm production in Ghana By Ruml, Anette; Qaim, Matin
  14. Determinants of School Dropout in Lao PDR: A Survival Analysis By Kikeo Boualaphet; Hideaki Goto
  15. Can crop diversification of perennial crop by smallholder farmers explained by risk attitudes and time preferences? By Wening Sarwosri, Arieska; Mußhoff, Oliver
  16. Do sustainability standards benefit smallholder farmers also when accounting for cooperative effects? Evidence from Cote d’Ivoire By Sellare, Jorge; Meemken, Eva-Marie; Kouamé, Christophe; Qaim, Matin
  17. (In)Visibility, Care and Cultural Barriers: The Size and Shape of Women’s Work in India By Ashwini Deshpande; Naila Kabeer
  18. Productivity Effects of Dengue in Brazil By Bhalotra, Sonia; Rocha, Rudi
  19. Corporate Social Responsibility in Nigeria and Rural Youths in Sustainable Traditional Industries Livelihood in Oil Producing Communities By Joseph I. Uduji; Elda N. Okolo-Obasi
  20. Stepping up from subsistence to commercial intensive farming to enhance welfare of farmer households in Indonesia By Joko Mariyono

  1. By: Arkedis, Jean (Harvard Kennedy School); Creighton, Jessica (Harvard Kennedy School); Dixit, Akshay (Harvard Kennedy School); Fung, Archon (Harvard Kennedy School); Kosack, Stephen (Harvard Kennedy School); Levy, Dan (Harvard Kennedy School); Tolmie, Courtney (Harvard Kennedy School)
    Abstract: We assess the impact of a transparency and accountability program designed to improve maternal and newborn health (MNH) outcomes in Indonesia and Tanzania. Co-designed with local partner organizations to be community-led and non-prescriptive, the program sought to encourage community participation to address local barriers in access to high quality care for pregnant women and infants. We evaluate the impact of this program through randomized controlled trials (RCTs), involving 100 treatment and 100 control communities in each country. We find that on average, this program did not have a statistically significant impact on the use or content of maternal and newborn health services, nor the sense of civic efficacy or civic participation among recent mothers in the communities who were offered it. These findings hold in both countries and in a set of prespecified subgroups. To identify reasons for the lack of impacts, we use a mixed-method approach combining interviews, observations, surveys, focus groups, and ethnographic studies that together provide an in-depth assessment of the complex causal paths linking participation in the program to improvements in MNH outcomes. Although participation in program meetings was substantial and sustained in most communities, and most attempted at least some of what they had planned, only a minority achieved tangible improvements and fewer still saw more than one such success. Our assessment is that the main explanation for the lack of impact is that few communities were able to traverse the complex causal paths from planning actions to accomplishing tangible improvements in their access to quality health care.
    Date: 2019–06
  2. By: Leonardo Bonilla-Mejía
    Abstract: This paper assesses the local effects of gold mining on human capital accumulation in contexts where illegal mining is prevalent. Evidence is based on high-resolution geographic information of gold mining and schools, and rich administrative data from Colombia. I exploit a boom in international gold prices and the exogenous geographic distribution of gold deposits to assess the causal effects of mining. Results indicate that mining increases enrollment in primary school and reduces dropout rates throughout the school cycle. However, mining also reduces standardized test scores and college enrollment, particularly in academic degrees and STEM fields. The estimated effects are considerably larger when both legal and illegal mining are accounted for. I then assess some of the potential mechanisms through which the commodity price shock can affect human capital. While child labor is overall unaffected, young adults between 19 and 25 are more likely to work in the mining sector. Evidence also indicates that mining increases royalties and public investment, with mixed results in terms of school inputs. Mining also intensifies conflict and violence, with potential large negative effects on human capital accumulation. **** RESUMEN: Este trabajo estudia el efecto local de la minería de oro sobre la acumulación de capital humano en contextos en los cuales predomina la minería ilegal. La evidencia está basada en información geográfica de alta resolución de minería y registros administrativos detallados del sistema educativo de Colombia. Para estimar los efectos causales de la minería se explota la variación exógena en los precios internacionales del oro y la distribución geográfica de los depósitos de mineral. Los resultados indican que la minería incrementa la matrícula escolar en primaria y reduce la deserción a lo largo del ciclo escolar. Sin embargo, la minería también tiene efectos negativos sobre el aprendizaje y reduce las probabilidades de acceder al sistema de educación superior, particularmente en carreras STEM. Los efectos estimados son considerablemente más grandes cuando se tiene en cuenta tanto la minería legal como la ilegal. En la última sección se prueban distintos mecanismos a través de los cuales el boom minero puede afectar la acumulación de capital humano. Mientras que no hay evidencia de mayor trabajo infantil, los adultos jóvenes entre 19 y 25 años tienen mayores probabilidades de trabajar en el sector minero. La evidencia también muestra que las regalías y la inversión pública aumentaron en los municipios mineros, con resultados mixtos para la provisión de educación escolar. Finalmente, el boom de precios intensifica el conflicto y la violencia en estas regiones, con efectos negativos potencialmente importantes sobre la acumulación de capital humano.
    Keywords: Natural resource curse, mining, human capital, Colombia, Maldición de recursos naturales, minería, capital humano, Colombia
    JEL: Q32 Q33 J13 J24
    Date: 2019–05–21
  3. By: Jonathan Goyette (Department of economics, University of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada); Maroua Smaoui (Department of economics, University of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada)
    Abstract: The goal of this paper is to examine the impact of rising world temperatures on the incidence of civil armed conflicts, focusing on a specific mechanism: the interaction between variations in annual temperatures and variations in agricultural potential. We assemble a dataset from various sources for 172 countries from 1946 till 2014. Agricultural potential is based on the Food and Agricultural Organization fs definition of a country land suitability for growing basic crops. Annual temperature data come from the Climate Research Unit of the University of East Anglia. Data on civil armed conflicts is from the Uppsala Conflict Data Project. Using a fixed-effect approach, our identification strategy is akin to a natural experiment where the exogenous interaction between the temporal variation in temperature within a country and the cross-country variation in agricultural potential allows identifying the effect of this interaction on conflict incidence. The findings indicate that temperature and agricultural potential are substitutes and have offsetting effects on conflict incidence. We find that in a country with low agricultural potential a one degree increase in temperature is associated with a 3% increase in conflict incidence. However, when agricultural potential is high, a one degree increase in temperature is associated with a 5% decrease in conflict incidence. The results are tested against various robustness checks.
    Keywords: armed conflict, civil war, climate change, crop suitability, water scarcity, food security
    JEL: I3 O13 P48 Q51 Q54
  4. By: Dang, Hai-Anh H.; Hiraga, Masako; Nguyen, Cuong Viet
    Abstract: Little literature currently exists on the effects of childcare use on maternal labor market outcomes in a developing country context, and recent studies offer mixed results. We attempt to fill these gaps by analyzing several of the latest rounds of the Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey spanning the early to mid-2010s. Addressing endogeneity issues with a regression discontinuity estimator based on children’s birth months, we find a sizable effect of childcare attendance on women’s labor market outcomes, including their total annual wages, household income, and poverty status. The effects of childcare attendance differ by women’s characteristics and are particularly strong for younger, more educated women. Furthermore, childcare has a medium-term effect and positively impacts men’s labor market outcomes as well.
    Keywords: Gender equality,child care,maternal employment,women’s empowerment,Vietnam
    JEL: J13 J16 J22 H42
    Date: 2019
  5. By: Luc Jacolin; Massil Keneck; Alphonse Noah
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of mobile financial services - MFS (mobile money, and mobile credit and savings) on the informal sector. Using both parametric and non-parametric methods on panel data from 101 emerging and developing countries over the period 2000-15, we find that MFS negatively affect the size of the informal sector. According to estimates derived from propensity score matching, MFS adoption decreases the informal sector size in a range of 2.4 – 4.3 percentage points of GDP. These formalization effects may stem from different possible transmission channels: improvement in credit access, increase in the productivity/profitability of informal firms attenuating subsistence constraints typical of entrepreneurship in the informal sector, as well as possible induced growth of firms already in the formal sector. The robustness of these results is supported by the use of an alternative estimation approach (instrumental variables). These findings lay the groundwork for the scarce literature on the macroeconomic impact of mobile financial services, a major dimension of the growing drive towards economic digitalization transiting through industry-level MW.
    Keywords: Mobile financial services, Mobile money, Financial innovation, Digitalization, Informal sector, Developing countries.
    JEL: C26 E26 O33 G29 L96
    Date: 2019
  6. By: Pedro Cavalcante Oliveira; Daniel Duque
    Abstract: We use a rich, census-like Brazilian dataset containing information on spatial mobility, schooling, and income in which we can link children to parents to assess the impact of early education on several labor market outcomes. Brazilian public primary schools admit children up to one year younger than the national minimum age to enter school if their birthday is before an arbitrary threshold, causing an exogenous variation in schooling at adulthood. Using a Regression Discontinuity Design, we estimate one additional year of schooling increases labor income in 25.8% - almost twice as large as estimated using mincerian models. Around this cutoff there is also a gap of 9.6% on the probability of holding a college degree in adulthood, with which we estimate the college premium and find a 201% increase in labor income. We test the robustness of our estimates using placebo variables, alternative model specifcations and McCrary Density Tests.
    Date: 2019–05
  7. By: Raymond Fisman (Boston University and NBER); Arkodipta Sarkar (London Business School); Janis Skrastins (Washington University in St. Louis); Vikrant Vig (London Business School)
    Abstract: We provide microeconomic evidence on the link between ethnic frictions and market efficiency, using dyadic data on managers and borrowers from a large Indian bank. Our analysis builds on the idea that exposure to religion-based communal violence may intensify branch managers’ same-group preferences, and thus result in lending decisions that are more sensitive to a borrower’s religion. We find that, in our sample of Hindu loan officers, those with substantial riot exposure prior to joining the bank lend relatively less to Muslim borrowers. Riot-exposed officers’ loans to Muslims are also less likely to default, suggesting that the lower lending rate for Muslims is driven by taste-based discrimination. This bias is persistent across a bank officer’s tenure, suggesting that the economic costs of ethnic conflict are long-lasting, potentially spanning across generations.
    Date: 2018–12
  8. By: Rudolf, Katrin; Romero, Miriamt; Asnawi, Rosyani; Irawan, Bambang; Wollni, Meike
    Abstract: Oil palm expansion in Indonesia is associated with a reduction in biodiversity and ecosystem services, as well as livelihood improvements for smallholder farmers. While this dichotomy highlights the importance of sustainable management options, empirical evidence on which policies are effective in stimulating biodiversity-friendly plantation management is relatively scarce. This paper addresses this gap by presenting results from a randomized controlled trial implemented in Jambi province, Sumatra, in 2016. We focus on native tree planting in oil palm plantations as one sustainable management option. To test whether information and input provision affect the number of trees planted by smallholders two treatments were designed: the first provided information about tree planting in oil palm, while the second combined information and seedling delivery. We model adoption in a double-hurdle framework where farmers first decide whether to adopt or not and then how many trees they plant per hectare. Our results suggest that both interventions are effective in stimulating tree planting in oil palm. Seedling provision in combination with information leads to a higher probability of adoption, but farmers plant on average relatively few trees per hectare. In contrast, in the informational treatment, few farmers adopt, but they plant more trees per hectare than farmers who received seedlings. Furthermore, we observe that the survival rate of trees planted is lower for farmers who received seedlings in comparison to farmers who only received information. Since we cannot find evidence for farmer and plot selection effects, it is likely that species choice and seedling quality are the underlying drivers of this difference.
    Keywords: technology adoption,randomized control trial,double-hurdle model,policy analysis,tree survival,video-based extension
    JEL: Q12 Q16 Q57 D04 C9
    Date: 2019
  9. By: Pranab Bardhan (University of California, Berkeley); Sandip Mitra (Indian Statistical Institute); Dilip Mookherjee (Boston University); Anusha Nath (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis)
    Abstract: We study how political support of household heads respond to receipt of different private and public good benefits delivered by local governments, and whether upper level governments respond strategically by manipulating program budgets to lower level government in West Bengal, India. We exploit redistricting of electoral boundaries by a non-partisan Election Commission, a plausibly exogenous shock to political competition. Consistent with a model of politically motivated allocation, private recurring benefit programs contracted (resp. expanded) in villages redistricted to more competitive constituencies when bottom and upper tier governments were controlled by opposing (resp. same) parties. The resulting changes in household benefit flows help predict household political support, which in turn rationalize the inter-village targeting patterns. The results illustrate the tendency for political parties to manipulate transfers across constituencies in the absence of formula-based grants to local governments, and more generally for political incentives to focus on delivery of short-term private benefits rather than one-time benefits or public goods consistent with theories of political clientelism.
    JEL: H40 H75 H76 O10 P48
    Date: 2018–12
  10. By: Isabelle Chort (UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, CATT - Centre d'Analyse Théorique et de Traitement des données économiques - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour); Philippe de Vreyer (LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - Université Paris-Dauphine, DIAL - Développement, institutions et analyses de long terme); Thomas Zuber (Colombia University - Mailman school of public health)
    Abstract: This study explores internal migration patterns of men and women using individual panel data from a nationally representative survey collected in two waves, in 2006-2007 and 2010-2012, in Senegal. The data used are unique in that they contain the GPS coordinates of individuals' location in both waves. We are thus able to precisely calculate distances and map individual moves, avoiding limitations and constraints of migration definitions based on administrative units. Our results reveal major differences across gender. Women are found to be more likely to migrate than men. However, they move less far and are more likely to migrate to rural areas, especially when originating from rural areas. Education is found to increase the likelihood of migration to urban destinations, especially for women. An analysis of the motives for migrating confirms the existence of gendered migration patterns, as female mobility is mostly linked to marriage while labor mobility is frequently observed for men.
    Keywords: Internal Migration,Gender Inequalities,Rural-Urban Migration,Senegal
    Date: 2018–10
  11. By: John Ssozi (Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798, USA); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon); Voxi Amavilah (REEPS, Arizona, USA)
    Abstract: Agriculture is the major source of livelihood for the majority population in Sub-Saharan Africa but its productivity is not only low it has started showing signs of decline since 2012. The paper seeks to find out whether official development assistance for agriculture is effective. The data for development assistance for agriculture are broken down into the major agricultural sectors in receiving countries. The empirical evidence is based on the two-step system Generalized Method of Moments to assess the degree of responsiveness of agricultural productivity to development assistance. There is a positive relationship between development assistance and agricultural productivity in general. However, when broken down into the major agricultural recipient sectors, there is a substitution effect between food crop production and industrial crop production. Better institutions and economic freedom are found to enable agricultural productivity growth, and to increase the effectiveness of development assistance. The structural economic transformation associated with agricultural development assistance is also found to be weak. Allocation of development assistance for agriculture is primarily determined by need, although expected effectiveness also increases the assistance receipts. Agricultural assistance policies could focus more on building productive capacity to reduce the need while boosting effectiveness. Breaking down data into agricultural recipient sectors, and controlling for the potential spurious correlation under the assumption that more development assistance could be allocated where agricultural productivity is already increasing due to some other factors.
    Keywords: Official Development Assistance; Agriculture; Sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: F35 F50 Q10 O10 O55
    Date: 2018–01
  12. By: SAM, Vichet
    Abstract: This article investigates the barriers to formal financial inclusion in Cambodia, focusing on saving and credit strands. We propose the multinomial logit model, allowing to distinguish the outcome variable into three categories: Formal inclusion, Informal inclusion and Financial exclusion. We apply this model to the FinScope survey data conducted in late 2015, which represents the adult population in Cambodia. Results suggest that the trust to financial institutions, the financial literacy, the distance to banks or MFI, the lack of documentation and the service costs are the main obstacles, but these barriers affect the probability of using formal financial services differently according to the types of financial services (saving or credit). Gender, marital status, education, income, access to media and information, the use of mobile phone with the access to the Internet and the household size are also found to be the key determinants.
    Keywords: Determinants and Barriers to financial inclusion, Developing country, Multinomial logit model.
    JEL: G21 G28
    Date: 2019–05–18
  13. By: Ruml, Anette; Qaim, Matin
    Abstract: Smallholder farmers in developing countries often suffer from high risk and limited market access. Contract farming may improve the situation under certain conditions. Several studies analyzed effects of contracts on smallholder productivity and income with mixed results. Most existing studies focused on one particular contract scheme. Contract characteristics rarely differ within one scheme, so little is known about how different contract characteristics may influence the benefits for smallholders. Here, we address this research gap using data from oil palm farmers in Ghana who participate in different contract schemes. Some of the farmers have simple marketing contracts, while others have resource-providing contracts where the buyer also offers inputs and technical services on credit. A comparison group cultivates oil palm without any contract. Regression models that control for selection bias show that resource-providing contracts increase farmers‟ input use and yield. Resourceproviding contracts also incentivize higher levels of specialization and an increase in the scale of production. These effects are especially pronounced for small and medium-sized farms. In contrast, the marketing contracts have no significant effects on input use, productivity, and scale of production. The results suggest that resource-providing contracts alleviate market access constraints, while the marketing contracts do not.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Land Economics/Use, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2019–05
  14. By: Kikeo Boualaphet (Bank of Lao PDR); Hideaki Goto (International University of Japan)
    Abstract: Using the most recent round of a nationally representative survey series, this study examines determinants of dropout from primary to higher levels of education in Lao PDR. The existing studies show that, unlike in other developing countries, the effects of household income and gender are limited. Our analysis confirms the former, that is, net household income has a negligible effect but not the latter-gender inequality remains an issue to be resolved at relatively higher levels of education. Further, despite the government's significant emphasis on early childhood education, the earlier studies report only insignificant effects. In contrast, we find that preschool attendance helps reduce dropout rates, implying that the government policy has been gaining effectiveness in recent years. As in other countries, mothers' schooling and school construction have positive effects on school enrollment in Lao PDR as well.
    Keywords: School dropout, education, preschool, gender inequality, survival analysis, Laos
    Date: 2019–05
  15. By: Wening Sarwosri, Arieska; Mußhoff, Oliver
    Abstract: This study examines whether the decision of crop diversification for perennial crops is based on underlying risk attitudes and time preferences. We conducted incentivised field experiments on Sumatra Island, Indonesia, involving farmers who cultivate rubber and farmers who cultivated rubber and oil palm trees, i.e., undertook crop diversification. We estimated risk attitudes and time preferences jointly. The results indicated that farmers who undertook crop diversification were statistically significantly more risk-averse than rubber farmers. However, the time preferences between the two groups were not statistically significantly different.
    Keywords: crop diversification,oil palms,risk attitudes,rubber,time preference
    Date: 2019
  16. By: Sellare, Jorge; Meemken, Eva-Marie; Kouamé, Christophe; Qaim, Matin
    Abstract: While many studies analyzed effects of sustainability standards – such as Fairtrade or Rainforest Alliance – on smallholder farmers in developing countries, most did not sufficiently account for systematic differences between certified and non-certified farmers. Certified farmers are typically organized in cooperatives. When sampling only from a small number of cooperatives, as previous studies did, it is not easy to disentangle certification effects from possible cooperative effects. Here, we address this shortcoming by randomly sampling from a large number of cooperatives, thus capturing a wide range of institutional heterogeneity. In particular, we collect and use data from cocoa farmers in Cote d’Ivoire that are organized in Fairtrade-certified and non-certified cooperatives. Regression models with instrumental variables show that Fairtrade has positive and significant effects on cocoa yields, prices, and living standards. These effects remain significant also after controlling for cooperative characteristics, but the magnitude of the estimates changes. We draw two conclusions. First, in Cote d’Ivoire Fairtrade certification benefits farmers economically. Second, and more generally, cooperative characteristics are jointly correlated with certification and relevant outcomes, which needs to be accounted for to avoid bias when evaluating the benefits of sustainability standards in the small farm sector.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty, International Development
    Date: 2019–05
  17. By: Ashwini Deshpande (Department of Economics, Ashoka University); Naila Kabeer (Department of Economics, Ashoka University)
    Abstract: Based on primary data from a large household survey in seven districts in West Bengal in India, this paper analyses the reasons underlying low labor force participation of women. In particular, we try to disentangle the intertwined strands of choice, constraints posed by domestic work and care responsibilities, and the predominant understanding of cultural norms as factors explaining the low labor force participation as measured by involvement in paid work. We document the fuzziness of the boundary between domestic work and unpaid (and therefore invisible) economic work that leads to mis-measurement of women’s work and suggest methods to improve measurement. We find that being primarily responsible for domestic chores lower the probability of “working†, after accounting for all the conventional factors. We also document how, for women, being out of paid work is not synonymous with care or domestic work, as they are involved in expenditure saving activities. We also find that religion and visible markers such as veiling are not significant determinants of the probability of working. Our data shows substantial unmet demand for work. Given that women are primarily responsible for domestic chores, we also document that women express a demand for work that would be compatible with household chores.
    Keywords: Women, Gender, Labor Force Participation, India
    Date: 2019–05
  18. By: Bhalotra, Sonia; Rocha, Rudi
    Abstract: Although understanding the role of health in driving labor market outcomes is a matter of great importance, it has proven difficult to isolate this effect due to empirical challenges and a lack of compelling sources of identification. We obtain causal estimates of the effect of health on income and welfare dependency through two different channels: a negative health shock (dengue outbreak) and a positive health shock (opening of a health-care facility). To do this, we rely on instrumental variables and difference-in-difference methods, as well as on novel datasets. We find that dengue outbreaks lower the average working hours and income. This effect is particularly high for low-income individuals, but conditional cash transfer programs can insulate them from this shock. On the other hand, the opening of a new health-care facility in a families catchment area rises family per capita income and employment. All together, this evidence suggest that health shocks are an important part of income, poverty and welfare dependency.
    Date: 2019–05–23
  19. By: Joseph I. Uduji (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria); Elda N. Okolo-Obasi (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria)
    Abstract: Since the first oil well was drilled in Nigeria, traditional economies have suffered neglect, and rural youths do not see a future for themselves in traditional industries livelihood (TIL). We examine the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) of multinational oil companies (MOCs) on youths’ participation in TIL. A total of 1200 youths were sampled across the rural Niger Delta. Results from the use of a logit model indicate a significant relationship between CSR and TIL. The findings suggest increased general memorandum of understanding (GMoU) interventions in canoe-carving, pottery-making, cloth-weaving, mat-making, and basket-weaving to revive the traditional economic activities in Nigeria.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; multinational oil companies
    JEL: J43 O40 O55 Q10
    Date: 2019–01
  20. By: Joko Mariyono
    Abstract: This article assesses the welfare impact of intensive chilli farming and determines the factors motivating farmers to engage in commercial farming. This study uses a structural equation model that measures the direct and indirect effects of explanatory variables on intensive chilli production and welfare. This study uses data of field surveys of randomly selected 220 farmers in three regions of Java. The results show that stepping up to intensive and profit†oriented farming improved farmers' welfare. Internal and external factors, directly and indirectly, affected farmers' decision to devote more resources to commercial chilli farming. Farmers' knowledge, as well as access to credit, technology adoption, marketplace, and traders, played significant roles in improving rural welfare. The government needs to reform marketing system of horticultural products and establish market infrastructures to accommodate oversupply during peak season. Easy and flexible credit should be available and accessible to farmers, with technology applicable to such agriculture.
    Keywords: chilli farming, external and internal factors, farming society, structural equation modelling (SEM), welfare impact
    Date: 2019–06–07

This nep-dev issue is ©2019 by Jacob A. Jordaan. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.