nep-dev New Economics Papers
on Development
Issue of 2017‒07‒30
four papers chosen by
Jacob A. Jordaan
Universiteit Utrecht

  1. Linking social heterogeneity and commodity price shocks to civil conflicts By Giménez Gómez, José M. (José Manuel)
  2. Toxic roads: Unearthing hazardous waste dumping By Caterina Gennaioli; Gaia Narciso
  3. The Value of Redistribution: Natural Resources and the Formation of Human Capital under Weak Institutions By Agüero, Jorge M.; Balcázar, Carlos Felipe; Maldonado, Stanislao; Nopo, Hugo R.
  4. Patrilocal Residence and Female Labour Supply By Landmann, Andreas; Seitz, Helke; Steiner, Susan

  1. By: Giménez Gómez, José M. (José Manuel)
    Abstract: Do exogenous economic shocks promote civil conflict directly? Do they affect all the societies alike? Using a large sample panel dataset, the current approach finds that commodity export prices shocks contribute to civil conflict in socially diversified countries. These findings contribute to the existing body literature linking income to conflict by analyzing not only the effect of commodity price shocks on conflict incidence, rather than onsets, but also by examining the joint effect of ethnicity and religious polarization and fractionalization. Keywords: economic shocks; conflict; polarization; fractionalization; commodity price. JEL classification: D74, O11, O17
    Keywords: Conflictes socials, Preus, Crisis econòmiques, 33 - Economia,
    Date: 2016
  2. By: Caterina Gennaioli (School of Business and Management, Queen Mary University of London.); Gaia Narciso (Department of Economics, Trinity College Dublin)
    Abstract: Illegal disposal of toxic waste has become an issue of concern in both developing and developed countries. Recycling hazardous waste entails very high costs, which might give strong incentives to dispose toxic material in an illegal way. This paper adopts an innovative strategy to identify where toxic waste might have been illicitly dumped. The strategy relies on a crucial premise: road constructions provide an ideal setting in which the burial of hazardous waste may take place. Guided by the medical literature, we investigate the health outcomes of individuals living along recently constructed roads in Ethiopia. We construct a unique dataset, which includes the extensive Demographic and Health Survey, together with georeferenced data on roads, villages and economic development, covering a 10-year period. We find that an additional road within a 5 kilometres radius is associated with an increase in infant mortality by 3 percentage points. Moreover, we provide evidence that young children living near a recently built road show a lower level of haemoglobin and are more likely to suffer from severe anaemia. A series of robustness checks confirms the above findings and excludes other potential confounding factors.
    Keywords: Hazardous Waste, Health, Infant Mortality, Ethiopia
    JEL: I15 Q51 Q53 O10
    Date: 2017–07
  3. By: Agüero, Jorge M. (University of Connecticut); Balcázar, Carlos Felipe (World Bank); Maldonado, Stanislao (Universidad del Rosario); Nopo, Hugo R. (GRADE)
    Abstract: We exploit time and spatial variation generated by the commodities boom to measure the effect of natural resources on human capital formation in Peru, a country with low governance indicators. Combining test scores from over two million students and district-level administrative data on mining production and the redistribution of mining taxes to local governments, we find no effect from production. However, redistribution of mining taxes increases math test scores by 0.23 standard deviations. We identify the improvements in the quality of teachers and in school infrastructure, together with increases in adult employment and health outcomes of adults and children, as key mechanisms from the redistribution. Policy implications for the avoidance of the natural resource curse are discussed.
    Keywords: resource booms, academic achievement, intergovernmental transfers
    JEL: H7 H23 I25 O15 Q32
    Date: 2017–07
  4. By: Landmann, Andreas (Paris School of Economics); Seitz, Helke (DIW Berlin); Steiner, Susan (Leibniz University of Hannover)
    Abstract: We examine the role of intergenerational co-residence for female labour supply in a patrilocal society. To account for the endogeneity of women's co-residence with parents or in-laws, we exploit a tradition in Central Asia, namely that the youngest son of a family usually lives with his parents. Using data from Kyrgyzstan, we therefore instrument co-residence with being married to a youngest son. We find the effect of co-residence on female labour supply to be negative and insignificant. This is in contrast to the previous literature, which found substantial positive effects in less patrilocal settings. Women who co-reside in Kyrgyzstan have more children, spend similar time on housekeeping tasks and child care, and invest more time in elder care compared with women who do not co-reside. These mechanisms appear to be inherently different from those in less patrilocal settings where co-residing parents relieve the women from household chores.
    Keywords: family structure, co-residence, labour supply, patrilocality, Kyrgyzstan
    JEL: J12 J21
    Date: 2017–07

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