nep-dev New Economics Papers
on Development
Issue of 2017‒06‒04
six papers chosen by
Jacob A. Jordaan
Universiteit Utrecht

  1. The Labor Market Effects of Refugee Waves: Reconciling Conflicting Results By Michael A. Clemens; Jennifer Hunt
  2. Childhood Aspirations, Occupational Outcomes and Exposure to Violence: Evidence from Burundi By Lionel Jeusette; Philip Verwimp
  3. Unintended Impacts: How roads change health and nutrition for ethnic minorities in Congo By Jacqueline Doremus
  4. Effect of Groundwater Development Project on Diarrhea Incidence in Rural Zambia By Yasuharu SHIMAMURA; Hiroshi NISHINO; Hirofumi TSURUTA; Keitaro AOYAGI
  5. “On the regional impact of broadband on productivity: the case of Brazil” By Juan Jung; Enrique López-Bazo
  6. Dynamics of multidimensional child poverty and its triggers: Evidence from Ethiopia using Multilevel Mixed Effect Model By Birhanu, Mulugeta Y.; Ambaw, Birhanu; Mulu, Yohannis

  1. By: Michael A. Clemens; Jennifer Hunt
    Abstract: An influential strand of research has tested for the effects of immigration on natives’ wages and employment using exogenous refugee supply shocks as natural experiments. Several studies have reached conflicting conclusions about the effects of noted refugee waves such as the Mariel Boatlift in Miami and post-Soviet refugees to Israel. We show that conflicting findings on the effects of the Mariel Boatlift can be explained by a sudden change in the race composition of the Current Population Survey extracts in 1980, specific to Miami but unrelated to the Boatlift. We also show that conflicting findings on the labor-market effects of other important refugee waves can be produced by spurious correlation between the instrument and the endogenous variable introduced by applying a common divisor to both. As a whole, the evidence from refugee waves reinforces the existing consensus that the impact of immigration on average native-born workers is small, and fails to substantiate claims of large detrimental impacts on workers with less than high school.
    JEL: C36 J61 R23
    Date: 2017–05
  2. By: Lionel Jeusette; Philip Verwimp
    Abstract: Recent evidence points at the importance of childhood aspirations for our understanding of poverty and development. But how are these affected by the exposure to violence? This paper employs a logistic framework to study that question for Burundi, a conflict-affected, fragile state. Using data from a new nationwide survey with a panel component we distinguish between armed violence, domestic violence, violence at school and participation in violence. We find that (i) aspiring a job in the public sector is popular regardless of the type of violence; (ii) Children exposed to armed conflict have higher aspirations, defined as wishing to be employed outside of agriculture. Our results also show that these children, as well as children exposed to domestic violence, have a lower probability to fulfill their aspirations; (iii) children exposed to violence at school or children who perpetrated violence do not aspire to leave agriculture, making that their outcomes are closer to their aspirations, (iv) the differences between aspirations and outcomes for the four types of violence have a strong gender component.
    Keywords: aspirations; outcomes; armed violence; domestic violence; aspiration failures
    Date: 2017–05
  3. By: Jacqueline Doremus (Department of Economics, California Polytechnic State University)
    Abstract: We investigate how a road connection in a remote area of Congo changes hunger and illness for ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities’ production activities are highly local, making it hard to construct a valid counter-factual. We exploit a natural experiment: a river boundary between two forests, one of which builds roads to satisfy eco-certification. We find the road increases trade and leads to the export of farmed food products. People and households increase production and specialize. Ethnic minorities, net buyers of exported food during this season, face higher prices and lower real wages. We find the road increases their frequency of hunger and illness. In Central Africa, hunting restrictions accompany roads to prevent over exploitation of fauna. We find the restrictions reduce hunting effort for all households. Households shift consumption to fish but, on net, consume protein less frequently, with non-fisher households seeing the largest decreases.
    Keywords: ethnic inequality, rural roads, nutrition, poverty, Africa, Congo
    JEL: O12 J15 J24 O18 Q12 F14
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Yasuharu SHIMAMURA (Graduate School of International Cooperation Studies, Kobe University); Hiroshi NISHINO (Metrics Work Consultants Inc); Hirofumi TSURUTA (Namidabashi Lab. Co., Ltd); Keitaro AOYAGI (Metrics Work Consultants Inc)
    Abstract: This study evaluates the effect of a groundwater development project in rural Zambia. Our empirical analysis using a difference-in-differences methodology under an experimental setting reveals that the project reduced the incidence of diarrhea over the past two weeks by 1.6 percentage points among individuals of all age groups and by 5.9 percentage points among children under five. This study, however, simultaneously finds that the impact of the newly constructed water supply facilities is highly likely to be impaired by recontamination of improved source water during transport and storage, which appears further deteriorated by a reduction in the use of water treatment methods at home.
    Keywords: waterborne disease; groundwater development; Zambia; impact evaluation; Japan International Cooperation Agency; development project
    Date: 2017–05
  5. By: Juan Jung (AQR-IREA, University of Barcelona); Enrique López-Bazo (AQR-IREA, University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the incidence of broadband on regional productivity in Brazil, intending to find out if the economic impact is uniform across all territories of the country. The possibility of performing a regional approach, instead of the usual country-level analysis, means an opportunity to disentangle the economic impact of broadband at territories which share a common institutional and regulatory framework as are the regions inside a country. Results suggest that the impact of broadband on productivity is positive although not uniform across regions. On the one hand, it seems to depend on connection quality and network effects. Faster download speed and critical-mass accounting for network externalities in the region enhance the economic impact of broadband. On the other hand, higher productivity gains are estimated for the less developed regions. The fact that the less productive regions in Brazil seem to be benefiting more from broadband may suggest that it can constitute a factor favoring regional convergence in the country.
    Keywords: Broadband, Information and Communication Technologies, Regional Productivity JEL classification: O33, O47, R11
    Date: 2017–05
  6. By: Birhanu, Mulugeta Y.; Ambaw, Birhanu; Mulu, Yohannis
    Abstract: Empirical studies on the dynamics of multidimensional child poverty are very limited and still more research is required to understand its nature and triggering factors especially in the context of developing countries. In light of this, this paper tries to assess the dynamics of multidimensional child poverty and major factors associated with it using longitudinal data mainly collected to assess child poverty in Ethiopia. It uses multilevel mixed effect logit models that could possibly incorporates fixed and random effects to capture the effect of cluster level and time varying variables on multidimensional child poverty transition. Results of the multidimensional poverty analysis indicate that, although there were significant variations among regions, multidimensional child poverty has decreased during 2002-2009. The paper argues that multidimensional child poverty has dynamic nature that would possibly resulted from the interaction of multiple factors including household demographic, household capital (human, social and resources), household economic activities, geographic locations, and household shocks. Moreover, the study shows the relevance of considering cluster level differences during poverty analysis to generate information relevant for designing targeted policies and strategies that would help to distribute available development resources efficiently and achieve sustainable poverty reduction in developing countries.
    Keywords: Multidimensional Child Poverty; Poverty dynamics, Mixed Effect; Multilevel Logit Model
    JEL: I32
    Date: 2017–03–30

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