nep-dev New Economics Papers
on Development
Issue of 2017‒05‒21
nine papers chosen by
Jacob A. Jordaan
Universiteit Utrecht

  1. Poverty, disasters and remittances: do remittances and past disasters influence households’ resilience? By Tebkieta Alexandra Tapsoba
  2. Idiosyncratic Shocks, Child Labor and School Attendance in Indonesia By Kharisma, Bayu
  3. Participation, learning, and equity in education: Can we have it all?: By Delavallade, Clara; Griffith, Alan; Shukla, Gaurav; Thornton, Rebecca
  4. Is foreign aid concentrated increasingly on needy and deserving recipient countries? An analysis of Theil indices, 1995-2015 By Bickenbach, Frank; Mbelu, Asithandile; Nunnenkamp, Peter
  5. Nudging Households to Take Up Health Insurance: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment in Burkina Faso By Bocoum, Fadima; Grimm, Michael; Hartwig, Renate; Zongo, Nathalie
  6. Nutrition incentives in dairy contract farming in northern Senegal : By Bernard, Tanguy; Hidrobo, Melissa; Le Port, Agnès; Rawat, Rahul
  7. Intra-household Selection into Migration: Evidence from a Matched Sample of Migrants and Origin Households in Senegal By Isabelle Chort; Jean-Noël Senne
  8. Estimating Poverty and Inequality in the Absence of Consumption Data: An Application to the Middle East and North Africa By Ragui Assaad; Caroline Krafft; Hanan Nazier; Racha Ramadan; Atiyeh Vahidmanesh; Sami Zouari
  9. A Health Literacy RCT toward Improvement of Programmatic Outcomes of Tuberculosis Control in the Tribal Areas of Pakistan Governance Support Program Post-Crisis By Musharraf Cyan; Michael Price; Mark Rider

  1. By: Tebkieta Alexandra Tapsoba (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - UdA - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Using a multi-topic household panel survey conducted in Burkina Faso by the “Institut national de la statistique et de la démographie” (INSD), in 2014, this paper assesses the impact of remittances on poverty in Burkina Faso. To do so, a poverty index is computed using household’s housing characteristics. Propensity score matching method is used as an empirical strategy, and results show that remittances have a negative impact on poverty. Another important result is that remittances have a higher impact on the resilience of households, when they have experienced disasters in the past. Therefore, when it comes to natural disasters, these inflows act as an important tool for populations to be more resilient.
    Keywords: Resilience,Poverty,Remittances,Natural disasters,Burkina Faso.
    Date: 2017–04–24
  2. By: Kharisma, Bayu
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of various idiosyncratic shocks against child labor, child labor hour and school attendance. Also, the role of the assets held by households as one of the coping strategies to mitigate the effects of shocks. The results show that various idiosyncratic shocks that encourage child labor is generally caused by crop loss, a disease suffered by the head or member of the household, a decrease in household income due to lower prices and the quantity produced and the death of the head or a family member. This indicates that households are not sheltered from the idiosyncratic shocks and restricted access to formal and informal institutions. Other findings show a variety of idiosyncratic shocks do not affect child labor hour and the school attendance. Additionally, household assets play an important role in reducing the number of child labor and increase school attendance but do not affect the child labor hour during a variety of idiosyncratic shocks.
    Keywords: Idiosyncratic Shocks, Child Labor, Child Labor Hour, School Attendance
    JEL: I24 J01
    Date: 2017–01–25
  3. By: Delavallade, Clara; Griffith, Alan; Shukla, Gaurav; Thornton, Rebecca
    Abstract: The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals have set a triple educational objective: improving access to, quality of, and gender equity in education. This study is the first to document the effectiveness of policies targeting all these objectives simultaneously. We examine the impact of a multifaceted educational program—delivered to 230 randomly selected primary schools in rural India—on students’ participation and performance. We also study the heterogeneity of this impact across gender and initial school performance, and its sustainability over two years. Although the program specifically targeted outof-school girls for enrollment, the learning component of the program targeted boys and girls equally. We find that the program reduced gender gaps in school retention and improved learning during the first year of implementation. However, targeting different educational goals (access, quality, and equity) did not yield sustained effects on school attendance or learning, nor did it bridge gender inequalities in school performance over the two-year period.
    Keywords: education; gender; policies; rural communities; impact assessment; girls education , development economics; primary school enrollment; retention; student academic performance; sustainable development goals,
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Bickenbach, Frank; Mbelu, Asithandile; Nunnenkamp, Peter
    Abstract: By tracking the changes in different margins of Theil indices during the period 1995-2015, we re-consider the question of whether bilateral and multilateral donors have targeted aid increasingly to particularly needy recipient countries with relatively good governance in order to improve the effectiveness of aid. According to our findings, the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness in 2005 has not changed the donors' aid allocation systematically and consistently. Bilateral aid has become slightly more concentrated on poorer recipient countries, but most donors became less selective in granting aid to higher income countries. Furthermore, the Paris Declaration did not help improve the merit-based allocation of aid. Finally, there is no compelling evidence suggesting that donors have become less self-interested in using aid as a means to promote their own exports.
    Keywords: foreign aid,Theil index,bilateral donors,multilateral donors,recipient need,recipient merit
    JEL: F23
    Date: 2017
  5. By: Bocoum, Fadima (Institute de Recherche en Sciences de Santé (IRSS)); Grimm, Michael (University of Passau); Hartwig, Renate (University of Namur); Zongo, Nathalie (Association Songui Manégré- Aide au développement Endogène (ASMADE))
    Abstract: In this paper we analyze the impact of a randomized information package on the understanding and uptake of community based health insurance. The information package consists of a detailed brochure which is distributed to households through home visits, a video also presented in people's homes and a personalized phone reminder. Overall, we find significant treatment effects on insurance uptake at the margin, although insurance uptake is low in general. We also find evidence for a better understanding of insurance principles among treated households, in particular in poorer households and in households with literate household heads. Finally, we see that treated households share the information they received with their neighbors and this also has positive effects on their understanding of insurance principles. We find further suggestive evidence that information sharing remains locally concentrated and does not surpass a radius of 1 km. Our findings contribute to the understanding how knowledge about the functioning of insurance can be enhanced in a context where the concept of insurance is largely unknown and where strong cultural beliefs prevail, and eventually, how insurance uptake can be increased, although the latter may take more time.
    Keywords: health insurance, take-up, encouragement design, learning, financial education
    JEL: D83 G22 I13 M31 O33
    Date: 2017–04
  6. By: Bernard, Tanguy; Hidrobo, Melissa; Le Port, Agnès; Rawat, Rahul
    Abstract: Health-related incentives to reward effort or commitment are commonplace in many professional contracts throughout the world. Typically absent from small-scale agriculture in poor countries, such incentives may help overcome both health issues for remote rural families and supply issues for firms. Using a randomized control design, we investigate the impact of adding a micronutrient-fortified product in contracts between a Senegalese dairy processing factory and its seminomadic milk suppliers. Findings show significant increases in frequency of delivery but only limited impacts on total milk delivered. These impacts are time sensitive and limited mostly to households where women are more in control of milk contracts.
    Keywords: nutrition; incentives; contract farming; supply chain; production economics; dairy industry; dairies; dairying; health; households; women; gender; dairy farms; milk production; rural areas; rural communities, dairy value chain, D13 Household Production and Intrahousehold Allocation; Q12 Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets; O12 Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development,
    Date: 2017
  7. By: Isabelle Chort (LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - Université Paris-Dauphine); Jean-Noël Senne (LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - Université Paris-Dauphine, PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper fills the gap between individual selection models and collective approaches of migration. We build a theoretical model in order to account for household-based migration decisions and derive its implications on migrant selection. Assuming that the origin household maximizes a collective utility including earnings but also further remittances when choosing the one among its members who is to migrate, migrant selection in this case may differ from what is predicted by a pure individual decision model. Therefore, we specifically tackle the so far under-explored issue of intra-household selection into migration in order to identify what are the key determinants of household members' location choices. We derive our estimation procedure from an extension of the Roy-Dahl model and provide empirical evidence using a unique matched sample of 926 Senegalese migrants in three destination countries - France, Italy and Mauritania - and their origin household in Senegal. Our results show that expected remittances, along with earnings differentials, play a major role in shaping intra-household selection patterns, which stands in striking contrast with usual predictions from individual self-selection models.
    Abstract: Ce papier, en se situant à l’interface des modèles de sélection individuelle et des approches collectives de la migration, apporte un éclairage nouveau sur la question centrale de la sélection des individus dans la migration. Un modèle théorique est tout d’abord proposé pour décrire le processus de décision de migration au niveau du ménage d’origine et, par là même, appréhender la complexité de la sélection du migrant lorsque la migration est envisagée comme une stratégie familiale. Le modèle fait l’hypothèse que le choix du membre du ménage en migration résulte de la maximisation de l’utilité collective du ménage d’origine, qui dépend non seulement des revenus mais aussi des transferts attendus de la part du migrant sélectionné. Dans ce cas, la sélection dans la migration peut différer de celle qui aurait prévalue dans le cadre d’un modèle de décision purement individuel. Ainsi, ce chapitre s’attaque à une problématique qui reste totalement inexplorée dans la littérature, à savoir la sélection intra-ménage dans la migration, et a pour ambition d’identifier les déterminants clés des choix de localisation des différents membres du ménage. Dans le prolongement du modèle de Roy, une procédure d’estimation novatrice est ensuite suggérée, permettant de tester les prédictions théoriques précédentes. L’analyse empirique se fonde sur des données uniques, issues du projet MIDDAS, et constituées d’un échantillon de migrants sénégalais dans trois pays de destinations (France, Italie et Mauritanie) appariés avec les non-migrants de leur ménage d’origine. Les résultats suggèrent que les différentiels de revenus, mais également les transferts attendus, jouent un rôle prépondérant dans la sélection du migrant au sein de son ménage d’origine, se posant ainsi en contraste avec les prédictions classiques des modèles de sélection individuels.
    Keywords: Migration,remittances,intra-household allocation,selection
    Date: 2017–04–28
  8. By: Ragui Assaad (University of Minnesota); Caroline Krafft; Hanan Nazier; Racha Ramadan; Atiyeh Vahidmanesh; Sami Zouari
    Abstract: Measures of consumption and poverty are critical metrics of the wellbeing of individuals, their households, communities, and countries. Collecting data on consumption and poverty is challenging and costly, and therefore these measures are only infrequently available in survey data. In this paper, we demonstrate how information commonly available in household surveys can be used to impute consumption, even recovering the original variance, which is crucial for assessments of poverty and inequality. Our application adds consumption estimates to the publicly available Labor Market Panel Surveys for Egypt, Jordan, and Tunisia, which can act as a valuable resource for researchers interested in the intersection of inequality, poverty, and a host of labor market behaviors in the Middle East and North Africa.
    Date: 2017–05–25
  9. By: Musharraf Cyan (Department of Economics, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University); Michael Price (Department of Economics, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University); Mark Rider (Department of Economics, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University)
    Abstract: According to World Health Organization, 9 million people contracted tuberculosis (TB) in 2013 and in the same time period 1.5 million died from the disease (WHO, 2013). The agency estimated that in the same year 550,000 children became ill with TB and 80,000 HIV-negative children died of TB. Further that close to half a million people developed multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB) requiring longer and costlier treatment. Pakistan is one of the 5 countries with high incidence of tuberculosis and possibly rising numbers of MDR and XDR (extensively drug resistant) varieties of the infection. In recognition of the worldwide case of resurgence of tuberculosis, Pakistan implements a National TB Control Program. One of its most important components works in the Federally Administration Tribal Areas (FATA) that are afflicted by violence and militancy for the past one decade. The traditional tribal culture and the security issues complicate access to communities. This evaluation was carried out as part of the FATA Governance Support Program’s capacity building initiatives under PCNA implementation and direct support to Directorate of M&E FATA Secretariat. TBCP was selected from a list of important projects under implementation in FATA. The program was selected due to its importance to health outcomes in the region as well as potential of policy lessons to be learnt for achieving higher results through evidence led programmatic initiatives. This evaluation was also planned to plug in gaps in information. TBCP implementation has been an ongoing program in the tribal areas since 2007. Other than the individuals coming to the diagnosis centers and patients returning for tests and additional doses of medication, little is known about the population’s knowledge of tuberculosis and attitudes toward accessing healthcare. This lack of information debilitates outreach efforts and reduces the scope of planning interventions suited to population characteristics. The evaluation seeks to provide these pieces of information for strengthening TBCP implementation in FATA and initiate evidence led interventions for improving programmatic outcomes.
    Date: 2017–05

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