nep-dev New Economics Papers
on Development
Issue of 2016‒07‒30
twenty papers chosen by
Jacob A. Jordaan
Universiteit Utrecht

  1. Recent patterns of post-conflict aid: Did donors help sustain peace? By Nunnenkamp, Peter
  2. The paradox of land reform, inequality and local development in Colombia By Jean-Paul Faguet; Fábio Sanches; Marta-Juanita Villaveces
  3. The impacts of piped water on water quality, sanitation, hygiene and health in rural households of north-western Bangladesh - a quasi-experimental analysis By Hasan, Mohammad Monirul; Gerber, Nicolas
  4. Determinants of Household Drinking Water Quality in Rural Ethiopia By Usman, Muhammed Abdella; Gerber, Nicolas; Pangaribowo, Evita Hanie
  5. Ethnic and racial disparities in children.s education Comparative evidence from Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Viet Nam By Mohamed Arouri; Adel Ben-Youssef; Cuong Nguyen
  6. Should I stay or should I go ? internal migration and household welfare in Ghana By Molini,Vasco; Pavelesku,Dan; Ranzani,Marco
  7. Public private partnerships: only for the well-off? Evidence from the rural productive partnership project in Colombia By Rafael Isidro PARRA-PEÑA; Mark LUNDY; Jana BISCHLER; Bilver Adrian ASTORQUIZA; John Jairo HURTADO
  8. Structural transformation in Africa : a historical view By Enache,Maria; Ghani,Syed Ejaz; O'Connell,Stephen
  9. The Evolution of Socioeconomic-Related Inequalities in Maternal Healthcare Utilization: Evidence from Zimbabwe, 1994-2011 By Makate, Marshall; Makate, Clifton
  10. Does Mass Deworming Affect Child Nutrition? Meta-analysis, Cost-Effectiveness, and Statistical Power By Kevin Croke; Joan Hamory Hicks; Eric Hsu; Michael Kremer; Edward Miguel
  11. All that glitters is not gold : polarization amid poverty reduction in Ghana By Clementi,Fabio; Molini,Vasco; Schettino,Francesco
  12. Impact Assessment and Micro-Simulations of Different Policy Options for Child Benefit in Viet Nam By Giang, Long; Nguyen, Cuong
  13. The Impact of Drinking Water Quality and Sanitation Behavior on Child Health: Evidence from Rural Ethiopia By Usman, Muhammed Abdella; Gerber, Nicolas; von Braun, Joachim
  14. The Recent Growth Resurgence in Africa and Poverty Reduction: Assessing the Context and Evidence By Augustin K. Fosu
  15. A randomized control trial of a peer adherence and nutritional support program for public sector antiretroviral patients By Booysen,Frederik Le Roux; De Walque,Damien B. C. M.; Over,Mead; Hashimoto,Satoko; de Reuck,Chantell
  16. Birth Order Effects on Educational Attainment and Child Labour: Evidence from Lesotho By Ramaele Moshoeshoe
  17. Does a Ban on Informal Health Providers Save Lives? Evidence from Malawi By Godlonton, Susan; Okeke, Edward N.
  18. Public Expenditure, Governance and Human Development: A Case of Madhya Pradesh. By Bhanumurthy, N.R.; Prasad, Manish; Jain, Richa
  19. A comparative analysis of subsidy reforms in the Middle East and North Africa Region By Araar,Abdelkrim; Verme,Paolo
  20. Searching for Religious Discrimination among Anganwadi Workers in India: An Experimental Investigation By Dasgupta, Utteeyo; Mani, Subha; Singh, Prakarsh

  1. By: Nunnenkamp, Peter
    Abstract: Donor reactions to recent settlements of internal conflicts have been highly diverse, in terms of both overall aid and its sectoral composition. The allocation of post-conflict aid tends to be needs-based by favoring particularly poor countries. There is no conclusive evidence, however, that the allocation was shaped by the severity and type of conflicts prior to settlement. Furthermore, the sustainability of conflict resolution appears to be unrelated to the amount and composition of post-conflict aid. These findings, though based on a limited number of post-conflict episodes, underscore concerns voiced by the OECD and non-governmental organizations that traditional approaches to post-conflict aid are not effective.
    Keywords: foreign aid,civil war,conflict resolution
    JEL: D74 F35
    Date: 2016
  2. By: Jean-Paul Faguet; Fábio Sanches; Marta-Juanita Villaveces
    Abstract: Over two centuries, Colombia transferred vast quantities of land, equivalent to the entire UK landmass, mainly to landless and poor peasants. And yet Colombia retains one of the highest concentrations of land ownership in the world. Why? We show that the effects of land reform on inequality and economic and human development were heterogeneous. On average, rural properties grew larger, land inequality and dispersion fell, and development increased across Colombia’s 1100+ municipalities between 1961-2010. But pre-existing inequality counteracts these effects, resulting in smaller rural properties, greater dispersion, and lower levels of development. How? Land reform increased public investment in agriculture, raising consumption of public and private goods. But land concentration again counters these effects. Elites seem to have distorted local decision-making to benefit themselves. We conclude that land reform’s second-order effects, on the distribution of local power, are more important than its first-order effects on the distribution of land.
    Keywords: land reform; inequality; development; latifundia; poverty; Colombia
    JEL: H27 N16 Q15
    Date: 2016–07
  3. By: Hasan, Mohammad Monirul; Gerber, Nicolas
    Abstract: We investigated the impacts of piped water on water quality, sanitation, hygiene and health outcomes in marginalized rural households of north-western Bangladesh using a quasi-experimental analysis. A government organization – the Barindra Multipurpose Development Authority (BMDA) – established a piped water network to provide these rural households with improved water as they have poor access to potable water. Using propensity score matching, the study compares a treatment and a control group of households to identify gains in water-sanitation, hygiene and health outcomes. We found that the BMDA piped water infrastructure had a positive impact on access to improved water and significantly reduced the distance traveled for and time spent on collecting drinking water. However, we found no improvement in the drinking water quality, which was measured by the extent of fecal contamination (E. coli count per 100 ml of water) at the point of use. The hygiene status of food utensils also did not show any improvement; food utensils were tested positive for E. coli in both the control and treatment group. Although access to BMDA piped water in the premises involves cost, it didn’t improve hygiene behavior: handwashing with soap after defecation and before feeding children. The treated households own larger water containers which implies that the intervention has had a clear impact on the quantity of water used for household purposes. However, we did not find evidence of health benefits, such as decreased diarrhea incidence of in under-five children, improved child anthropometrics stunting, underweight and wasting of children due to piped water use.
    Keywords: Child diarrhea, Child growth, Piped water supply, Water-Sanitation, Hygiene, Irrigation agriculture, Propensity Score Matching, water quality, food utensil hygiene., Community/Rural/Urban Development, Consumer/Household Economics, Environmental Economics and Policy, Food Security and Poverty, Health Economics and Policy, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, D12, I12, I31, O12, O18, Q15, Q25, P46,
    Date: 2016–07
  4. By: Usman, Muhammed Abdella; Gerber, Nicolas; Pangaribowo, Evita Hanie
    Abstract: Safe and adequate water supply is a vital element to preserve human health; however, access to clean water is limited in many developing countries. Furthermore, improved water sources are often contaminated with fecal matters and consumption of unsafe water poses a great public health risk. This study seeks to identify determinants of microbial contamination of household drinking water under multiple-use water systems in rural areas of Fogera and Mecha districts of Ethiopia. In this analysis, a random sample of 454 households was surveyed from February to March 2014, and water samples from community sources and storage containers were collected and tested for fecal contamination. The number of Escherichia coli (E.coli) colony forming units per 100ml (cfu/100ml) water was used as an indicator of fecal contamination. The results show that 50% of households used protected water sources, 38% used unprotected wells/ spring and 12% used surface water sources. However, water microbiological tests demonstrated that 58% of household storage water samples and 74% of water sources were contaminated with E.coli. After controlling for household sanitary factors, high level of E.coli bacteria colonies were observed in unprotected water compared to surface water and protected wells/springs sources. To ensure the quality and safety of water stored in the household, our findings suggest that point-of-use water treatment, safe water handling and storage, proper hygiene practices such as washing hands after critical times and proper disposal of household garbage should be promoted. On-site water wells should be properly designed to prevent seepage from unhygienic household pit latrine. Furthermore, community water sources should be adequately protected and sanitary measures should be undertaken regularly to reduce contamination from human and animal waste.
    Keywords: drinking water quality, water source, Escherichia coli, sanitation and hygiene, rural Ethiopia., Consumer/Household Economics, Health Economics and Policy, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, I10, Q25, Q53,
    Date: 2016–07
  5. By: Mohamed Arouri; Adel Ben-Youssef; Cuong Nguyen
    Abstract: We investigate whether there are racial and ethnic disparities in children.s education in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Viet Nam. We find that in all the four countries, and especially in Viet Nam, children from small ethnic groups have lower education attainment and cognitive ability. The gap in educational attainment and cognitive ability among ethnic children is larger than the gap in school enrolment, and the gap tends to be wider for older children. Using the OaxacaBlinder decomposition, we find that the main contribution to the gap in education between children from small ethnic groups and large ethnic groups in India, Peru, and Viet Nam is the difference in endowments (i.e. characteristics of children and their families) rather than in the coefficients of endowments. However, in Ethiopia, the difference in the coefficients contributes more than the difference in endowments to the gap in education. Child health, parental education, household expenditure, and an urban environment are important variables for explaining the gap in education between children from small and large ethnic groups.
    Keywords: children.s education, racial disparities, low-income countries, Ethiopia, India, Peru, Viet Nam
    Date: 2016
  6. By: Molini,Vasco; Pavelesku,Dan; Ranzani,Marco
    Abstract: This papers investigates to what extent internal migration contributes to improving households'welfare in Ghana. Using the most recent and nationally representative household survey (Ghana Living Standards Survey 2012/13), the estimates indicate that on average migration increases consumption significantly, and the effect is driven by households migrating from inland regions to the coastal areas of the country. The analysis also finds heterogeneous effects by gender and educational attainment, with migrant households headed by males and highly educated individuals faring significantly better than migrant households headed by females and low-educated individuals. The paper shows convincing evidence that the positive impact of migration on consumption is attributable to a physical mobility effect rather than changes in labor force status or sector of economic activity. However, the migration process in Ghana has important downsides, such as the brain drain and disruption of the social fabric in the communities originating migration. Future research in this area is warranted to have a more comprehensive picture of the social impact of migration in Ghana.
    Date: 2016–07–20
  7. By: Rafael Isidro PARRA-PEÑA; Mark LUNDY; Jana BISCHLER; Bilver Adrian ASTORQUIZA; John Jairo HURTADO
    Abstract: This paper focuses on assessing the evidence that Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) work well for producers from vulnerable backgrounds and/or located in post conflict zones. Looking at data from the Rural Productive Partnership Project (PAAP), a decade long program designed to overcome market barriers in Colombia, and using a combination of statistical and econometric techniques such as principal component analysis, survival models and impact assessment methods, results reveal that partnerships with vulnerable populations perform similar to others with better off participants. Partnerships in post-conflict zones perform slightly worse than those in other areas. Additionally, there is no difference in the duration of agribusiness contracts, regardless of producers’ backgrounds and location in a post-conflict zone or not. The impact assessment exercise confirms an increase in households’ sales of the PAAP product. These findings suggest that market access PPPs such as the PAAP can be inclusive, helping to link marginalized smallholder farmers to modern agricultural value chains.
    Keywords: Rural productive partnership project, productive alliance, agribusiness, agricultural policy, vulnerable farmers
    JEL: Q12 Q13 Y Q18
    Date: 2016–07–21
  8. By: Enache,Maria; Ghani,Syed Ejaz; O'Connell,Stephen
    Abstract: This paper presents evidence suggesting that the relationship between income and economic structure is shifting over time, with countries across the income distribution uniformly increasing the share of labor in service sectors and an increasingly less stark relationship between manufacturing intensity and gross value added per capita. The paper then assesses historical patterns of productivity convergence at a more detailed sector disaggregation than has been previously available. The analysis finds suggestive evidence that, at least in recent decades, convergent pressures in services industries are stronger than in manufacturing. Focusing on African economies, the paper presents a country-by-country historical analysis of structural change over the past four decades. Given the varied patterns and trends in structural change across African countries, it is difficult to characterize structural change from a single, continent-wide perspective. Some countries saw an early transition of labor out of agriculture, with manufacturing absorbing this labor in the decades prior to the 1990s, while another group of countries saw a later transition out of agriculture, where the services sector played a large role in labor reallocations in the 1990s and 2000s. Finally, the paper provides a country-by-country structural transformation scorecard to assess patterns of structural change in jobs and growth.
    Date: 2016–07–11
  9. By: Makate, Marshall; Makate, Clifton
    Abstract: Abstract: Inequalities in maternal healthcare are pervasive in the developing world, a fact that has led to questions about the extent of these inequalities across socioeconomic groups. Yet, despite a growing literature on maternal health across Sub-Saharan African countries, relatively little is known about the evolution of these inequalities over time for specific countries. This study sought to examine and document the trends in the inequalities in prenatal care use, professional delivery assistance, and the receipt of information on pregnancy complications in Zimbabwe. We assess the extent to which the observed inequalities have been pro-poor or pro-rich. The empirical analysis uses data from four rounds of the nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey for Zimbabwe conducted in 1994, 1999, 2005/06 and 2010/11. Three binary indicators were used as measures of maternal health care utilization; (1) the receipt of four or more antenatal care visits, (2) the use of professional delivery assistance, and (3) the receipt of information regarding pregnancy complications for the most recent pregnancy. We measure and explain inequalities in maternal health care use using Erreyger’s corrected concentration index. A decomposition analysis was conducted to determine the contributions of each determining factor to the measured inequalities. We found a significant and persistently pro-rich distribution of inequalities in professional delivery assistance and knowledge regarding pregnancy complications was observed between 1994 and 2010/11. Also, inequalities in prenatal care use were pro-rich in 1994, 2005/06 and 2010/11 periods and pro-poor in 1999. Furthermore, we stratified the results by rural or urban status. The results reveal a rising trend in observed inequalities in maternal health care use over time. Our findings suggest that addressing inequalities in maternal healthcare utilization requires coordinated public health policies targeting the more poor and vulnerable segments of the population in Zimbabwe.
    Keywords: Socioeconomic-related inequality; maternal healthcare utilization; Erreygers concentration index; Zimbabwe
    JEL: I12 I14
    Date: 2016–04–28
  10. By: Kevin Croke; Joan Hamory Hicks; Eric Hsu; Michael Kremer; Edward Miguel
    Abstract: The WHO has recently debated whether to reaffirm its long-standing recommendation of mass drug administration (MDA) in areas with more than 20% prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths (hookworm, whipworm, and roundworm). There is consensus that the relevant deworming drugs are safe and effective, so the key question facing policymakers is whether the expected benefits of MDA exceed the roughly $0.30 per treatment cost. The literature on long run educational and economic impacts of deworming suggests that this is the case. However, a recent meta-analysis by Taylor-Robinson et al. (2015) (hereafter TMSDG), disputes these findings. The authors conclude that while treatment of children known to be infected increases weight by 0.75 kg (95% CI: 0.24, 1.26; p=0.0038), there is substantial evidence that MDA has no impact on weight or other child outcomes. We update the TMSDG analysis by including studies omitted from that analysis and extracting additional data from included studies, such as deriving standard errors from p-values when the standard errors are not reported in the original article. The updated sample includes twice as many trials as analyzed by TMSDG, substantially improving statistical power. We find that the TMSDG analysis is underpowered: it would conclude that MDA has no effect even if the true effect were (1) large enough to be cost-effective relative to other interventions in similar populations, or (2) of a size that is consistent with results from studies of children known to be infected. The hypothesis of a common zero effect of multiple-dose MDA deworming on child weight at longest follow-up is rejected at the 10% level using the TMSDG dataset, and with a p-value
    JEL: C49 I15 I18 O15
    Date: 2016–07
  11. By: Clementi,Fabio; Molini,Vasco; Schettino,Francesco
    Abstract: Ghana is an exceptional case in the Sub-Saharan Africa landscape. Together with a handful of other countries, Ghana offers the opportunity to analyze the distributional changes in the past two decades, since four comparable household surveys are available. In addition, different from many other countries in the continent, Ghana's rapid growth translated into fast poverty reduction. A closer look at the distributional changes that occurred in the same period, however, suggests less optimism. The present paper develops an innovative methodology to analyze the distributional changes that occurred and their drivers, with a high degree of accuracy and granularity. Looking at the results from 1991 to 2012, the paper documents how the distributional changes hollowed out the middle of the Ghanaian household consumption distribution and increased the concentration of households around the highest and lowest deciles; there was a clear surge in polarization indeed. When looking at the drivers of polarization, household characteristics, educational attainment, and access to basic infrastructure all tended to increase over time the size of the upper and lower tails of the consumption distribution and, as a consequence, the degree of polarization.
    Date: 2016–07–20
  12. By: Giang, Long; Nguyen, Cuong
    Abstract: This study was aimed to estimate how cash transfer to children could help to reduce their poverty as well as to increase access to education, health and other material life conditions. We find that cash transfers would have a positive effect of income on school enrolment: a one percent increase in per capita income could lead to a 0.0394 percent increase in the probability of children’s primary and secondary school enrolment. In addition, increased income resulted from cash transfers could significantly increase out-of-pocket (OOP) spending on education: a one percent increase in per capita income could help households increase OOP spending on education and OOP spending on education excluding tuition fee by 0.883 percent and 0.454 percent, respectively. Finally, the simulations show that generally the transfer amount of VND 70,000/month/child (which was merely 2.31% of GDP per capita in 2012) could increase the school enrolment rate of children by 0.125 percent. However, there were no significant effects of cash transfers on health care contacts (both impatience and outpatience) and out-of-pocket spending on health care.
    Keywords: Cash transfers, children, health, education, Vietnam.
    JEL: H5 I0
    Date: 2015–12–30
  13. By: Usman, Muhammed Abdella; Gerber, Nicolas; von Braun, Joachim
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of drinking water quality and sanitation behavior on child health in rural districts of Ethiopia. Using primary household survey data and microbiological water test for Escherichia coli, we use various estimation methods to quantify the impacts of water quality and sanitation behavior on diarrhea incidence among children under five years old. Our results show that uncontaminated household storage water and safe child stool disposal decrease incidence of child diarrhea by 16% and 23% respectively. In contrast, neighborhood concentration of pit latrine increases incidence of child diarrhea by 12%. The latter result casts serious doubt on the assumed health and social benefits of moving from open to fixed-location defecation. Creating open defecation free communities in rural areas is not enough to achieve the desired health benefits of sanitation. To protect rural households from the risk of contracting communicable diseases, existing pit latrines should be upgraded to make them safer to use – fly-proofed and hygienic. There is a need for appropriate policy actions to improve household drinking water quality and to change people’s behavior towards safe sanitation practices. Increasing access to clean water supply and providing means for safe excreta disposal will bring significant health and social gains. Moreover, promotion of hygiene education campaigns about household water treatment, safe water storage and handling, washing hands with soaps at critical times, and adequately removing child feces from the domestic environment can also help ensure that people preserve good health in their household and their community.
    Keywords: drinking water quality, sanitation, hygiene, child health, diarrhea, instrumental variable, rural Ethiopia., Consumer/Household Economics, Environmental Economics and Policy, Health Economics and Policy, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, I1, D1, C36, Q53,
    Date: 2016–07
  14. By: Augustin K. Fosu
    Abstract: While economic growth in Africa has resurged substantially since the mid-to-late 1990s, the amount of poverty reduction seems much less spectacular. Building on other studies, the paper explores the translation of the recent growth to poverty reduction using 1985-2013 PovcalNet (World Bank) data. It assesses the relative abilities of various panel-data methodologies to predict poverty changes based on income-inequality decompositions. Surprisingly, SYSGMM performs substantially worse than Fixed Effects and Random Effects. The analysis is conducted for both the $1.25 and $2.00 poverty lines, and for the ‘spread’ and ‘depth’ of poverty, as well as for the usual popular measure, the headcount ratio. Although income growth appears to be the main force behind poverty reduction in Africa, the decomposition reveals striking differences across countries with respect to the relative roles of inequality and income.
    Keywords: Growth resurgence; income; inequality; poverty reduction; Africa
    JEL: D31 I32 O11 O49 O55
    Date: 2016
  15. By: Booysen,Frederik Le Roux; De Walque,Damien B. C. M.; Over,Mead; Hashimoto,Satoko; de Reuck,Chantell
    Abstract: Access to antiretroviral treatment has expanded rapidly in South Africa, making it the country in the world with the largest treatment program. As antiretroviral treatment coverage continues to rise in resource-constrained settings, effective community-based adherence support interventions are of central importance in ensuring the long-term sustainability of treatment. This paper reports the findings from a randomized control trial of a peer adherence and nutritional support program implemented in a public health care setting in South Africa's antiretroviral treatment program. The analysis assesses the impact of these peer adherence and nutritional support interventions on self-reported adherence, timeliness of clinic and hospital visits, and immunologic response to antiretroviral treatment. Peer adherence and nutritional support improved the timeliness of adults´ clinic and hospital visits for routine follow-up while on antiretroviral treatment. Peer adherence support impacted positively on immunologic response to antiretroviral treatment. Scale-up of effective and sustainable community-based, peer-driven adherence and nutritional support interventions should form part of the United Nations AIDS Treatment 2.0 strategy's community mobilization and health system strengthening pillar.
    Date: 2016–07–21
  16. By: Ramaele Moshoeshoe
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of birth order on educational attainment and child labour in Lesotho. Using family fixed effects models, I find robust negative birth order effects on educational attainment and child labour. The birth order effects on educational attainment are in sharp contrast with the evidence from many other developing countries such as Ecuador and Kenya, but are consistent with the evidence from developed countries. I further find that these birth order effects are pronounced in large families, and families with first-born girls, which suggests presence of girls' education bias. Turning to potential pathways of these effects, I find that they are not propagated through family wealth, but mainly through birth-spacing. These results are robust to different sample restrictions.
    Keywords: Educational attainment, Child labour, Birth Order
    JEL: D13 I21 J1 O12
    Date: 2016
  17. By: Godlonton, Susan; Okeke, Edward N.
    Abstract: Informal health providers ranging from drug vendors to traditional healers account for a large fraction of health care provision in developing countries. They are, however, largely unlicensed and unregulated leading to concern that they provide ineffective and, in some cases, even harmful care. A new and controversial policy tool that has been proposed to alter household health seeking behavior is an outright ban on these informal providers. The theoretical effects of such a ban are ambiguous. In this paper, we study the effect of a ban on informal (traditional) birth attendants imposed by the Malawi government in 2007. To measure the effect of the ban, we use a difference-in-difference strategy exploiting variation across time and space in the intensity of exposure to the ban. Our most conservative estimates suggest that the ban decreased use of traditional attendants by about 15 percentage points. Approximately three quarters of this decline can be attributed to an increase in use of the formal sector and the remainder is accounted for by an increase in relative/friend-attended births. Despite the rather large shift from the informal to the formal sector, we do not find any evidence of a statistically significant reduction in newborn mortality on average. The results are robust to a triple difference specification using young children as a control group. We examine several explanations for this result and find evidence consistent with quality of formal care acting as a constraint on improvements in newborn health.
    Keywords: informal health providers, government bans, child mortality
    JEL: I12 I15 O15
    Date: 2015–06
  18. By: Bhanumurthy, N.R. (National Institute of Public Finance and Policy); Prasad, Manish (National Institute of Public Finance and Policy); Jain, Richa (National Institute of Public Finance and POlicy)
    Abstract: This paper examines the link between quality of governance, public expenditure and human development outcomes in the state of Madhya Pradesh. The role of governance is measured in five dimensions: Political, Legal Judicial, Administrative, Economic and Social. A total of 22 indicators have been used to measure the Governance Index (GI) of Madhya Pradesh at district level. The results in this paper suggest that, at district level, development expenditure alone is not sufficient in achieving human development outcomes. However, the effectiveness of public expenditures improves with better governance indicators. In addition, GI is found to be significant and positive in improving development outcomes. Among the governance dimensions, weak administrative index appears to be the main constraint in improving the human development outcomes in less developed districts. Disaggregated analysis suggests that the districts with lower human development achievements need to prioritize only in one or two dimensions of governance, in particular administrative governance. Prioritization of various or specific dimensions of governance should help in reducing the divergences in development outcomes across the districts. The findings of this paper are very important as they suggest that public expenditure efficiency depends on the quality of governance. Hence, there is a need to equally focus, both, on improving governance as well as on increasing development expenditures. In the context of achieving SDGs and with the lessons learnt from MDGs, the findings of the paper suggest that we should focus on policy both at the sub-national and sub-state level.
    Keywords: Governance ; Public Expenditure ; Human Development ; SDGs
    JEL: H5 H76 O15 Q01
    Date: 2016–07
  19. By: Araar,Abdelkrim; Verme,Paolo
    Abstract: The paper compares the distribution of energy and food subsidies across households and the impact of subsidy reforms on household welfare in the Middle East and North Africa region. The analysis uses a unified model and harmonized household data. The results show that the distribution of subsidies and the welfare effects of subsidy reforms are quite diverse across countries and products. Energy subsidies tend to be pro-rich in terms of absolute amounts, but tend to be more important for the poor in terms of expenditure shares. Instead, food subsidies are larger for the poor in absolute and relative terms. These findings do not apply everywhere, and the scale of these phenomena are different across countries and products. The welfare effect of a 30 percent reduction in subsidies can be important, especially considering the cumulated effect across products, but the cost of compensating the loss in welfare for the poor is generally low compared with the budget benefits of decreasing subsidies.
    Date: 2016–07–20
  20. By: Dasgupta, Utteeyo (Fordham University); Mani, Subha (Fordham University); Singh, Prakarsh (Amherst College)
    Abstract: This paper examines whether, in India, discriminatory practices by government-employed child caregivers along religious lines, lead to differential health outcomes among the care receiving children. Child caregivers participate in a novel allocation game where we incorporate treatments to disentangle statistical and taste-based discrimination. Our findings find no evidence of taste-based discrimination or statistical discrimination among the child caregivers. We also weigh-in on the usefulness of non-incentivized experiments in discrimination experiments.
    Keywords: artefactual field experiment, discrimination, health, allocation game, India, religion
    JEL: C9 D3 I1 O1
    Date: 2016–07

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