nep-dev New Economics Papers
on Development
Issue of 2013‒04‒13
27 papers chosen by
Mark Lee
Towson University

  1. Horticultural exports, female wage employment and primary school enrolment: Theory and evidence from Senegal By Maertens, Miet; Verhofstadt, Ellen
  2. Why Are Women Less Democratic Than Men? Evidence from Sub-Saharan African Countries By Cecilia García-Peñalosa; Maty Konte
  3. Wage and price dynamics in a large emerging economy: The case of China By Carsten A Holz; Aaron Mehrotra
  4. Informality and Overeducation in the Labor Market of a Developing Country By Paula Herrera-Idárraga; Enrique López-Bazo; Elisabet Motellón
  5. Conflict, Climate and Cells: A Disaggregated Analysis By Harari, Mariaflavia; La Ferrara, Eliana
  6. Social Fragmentation, Public Goods and Elections: Evidence from China By Padro, Gerard; Qian, Nancy; Yao, Yang
  7. Regime Change, Democracy and Growth By Freund, Caroline; Jaud, Melise
  8. The Future of International Liquidity and the Role of China By Taylor, Alan M.
  9. Taxation and Development By Besley, Timothy J.; Persson, Torsten
  10. The Economic and Demographic Transition, Mortality, and Comparative Development By Cervellati, Matteo; Sunde, Uwe
  11. Profitability of fertilizer: Experimental evidence from female rice farmers in Mali By Beaman, Lori; Karlan, Dean S.; Thuysbaert, Bram; Udry, Christopher
  12. Urbanisation and Migration Externalities in China By Combes, Pierre-Philippe; Démurger, Sylvie; Li, Shi
  13. The Commodity Export, Growth, and Distribution Connection in Southeast Asia 1500-1940 By Williamson, Jeffrey G
  14. An Equilibrium Model of the African HIV/AIDS Epidemic By Jeremy Greenwood; Philipp Kircher; Cezar Santos; Michele Tertilt
  15. Location factors of export-platform foreign direct investment: Evidence from Vietnam By Huu Thanh Tam Nguyen; Med Kechidi; Alexandre Minda
  16. Rising wages in Bangladesh: By Zhang, Xiaobo; Rashid, Shahidur; Ahmad, Kaikaus; Mueller, Valerie; Lee, Hak Lim; Lemma, Solomon; Belal, Saika; Ahmed, Akhter U.
  17. Opportunities and challenges for community involvement in public service provision in rural Guatemala: By Speer, Johanna; Vásquez, William F.
  18. A regional computable general equilibrium model for Honduras: Modeling exogenous shocks and policy alternatives By Morley, Samuel; Piñeiro, Valeria
  19. Exchange rate policy and devaluation in Malawi: By Pauw, Karl; Dorosh, Paul A.; Mazunda, John
  20. Growth in Regions By Nicola Gennaioli; Rafael La Porta; Florencio Lopez de Silanes; Andrei Shleifer
  21. Proximate Determinants of School Dropout: A study on Rural West Bengal By Hati, Koushik Kumar; Majumder, Rajarshi
  22. The Impact of Capital Structure on Firms’ Performance in Nigeria By Ojah Patrick , Ogebe; Joseph Orinya , Ogebe; Kemi , Alewi
  23. Why Do Inefficient Firms Survive? Management and Economic Development By Michael Peters
  24. Food price volatility and domestic stabilization policies in developing countries By Gouel, Christophe
  25. What is a civil war ? a critical review of its definition and (econometric) consequences By Gersovitz, Mark; Kriger, Norma
  26. Measuring the effect of a community-level program on women's empowerment outcomes : evidence from India By Kandpal, Eeshani; Baylis, Kathy; Arends-Kuenning, Mary
  27. The history augmented Solow model By Dalgaard, Carl-Johan; Strulik, Holger

  1. By: Maertens, Miet; Verhofstadt, Ellen
    Abstract: In this paper we analyse the indirect effects of the boom in horticultural exports in Senegal on child schooling. The export boom has caused a dramatic increase in female off-farm wage employment, which led to increased female bargaining power in the household. We investigate the causal effect of female wage income on primary school enrolment. We develop a collective household model with endogenous bargaining power to show that, if women have higher preferences for schooling than men, the impact of female wage income on school enrolment will be the result of a positive income effect, a negative labour substitution effect and a positive empowerment effect. We address the question empirically using original household survey data from Senegal. We use different econometric techniques and show that female off-farm wage income has a positive effect on primary school enrolment, and that the effect is equally large for girls and boys. Our results imply that the horticultural export boom in Senegal has indirectly contributed to the second and third Millennium Development Goals of universal primary education and elimination of gender disparities in primary education.
    Keywords: globalisation, female labour market participation, female empowerment, collective household model, primary school enrolment, gender disparity in schooling, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade, Labor and Human Capital,
    Date: 2012
  2. By: Cecilia García-Peñalosa (Aix Marseille University (Aix Marseille School of Economics), Cnrs and Ehess); Maty Konte (Aix Marseille University (Aix Marseille School of Economics), Cnrs and Ehess)
    Abstract: A substantial literature has examined the determinants of support for democracy and although existing work has found a gender gap in democratic attitudes, there have been no attempts to explain it. In this paper we try to understand why females are less supportive of democracy than males in a number of countries. Using data for 20 Sub-Saharan African countries, we test whether the gap is due to individual differences in policy priorities or to country-wide characteristics. We find that controlling for individual policy priorities does not offset the gender gap, but those women who are interested in politics are more democratic than men. Furthermore, our results indicate that the gap disappears in countries with high levels of human development and political rights.
    Keywords: Support for democracy, gender gap, policy priorities, institutions
    JEL: D01 J16 O38 O55
    Date: 2013–03–19
  3. By: Carsten A Holz; Aaron Mehrotra
    Abstract: This study finds that the growth in labour costs in China is not passed through fully to final prices in China, neither in the tradable goods sector nor in the economy as a whole. This probably reflects the strong pressure on profit margins from a highly competitive environment, especially in manufactured goods. The potential implications of labour cost increases in China for global inflation pressures are also discussed.
    Keywords: labour costs, inflation, China, global economic slack, globalisation
    Date: 2013–04
  4. By: Paula Herrera-Idárraga; Enrique López-Bazo; Elisabet Motellón
    Abstract: In this paper, we explore the connection between labor market segmentation in two sectors, a modern protected formal sector and a traditional- unprotected-informal sector, and overeducation in a developing country. Informality is thought to have negative consequences, primarily through poorer working conditions, lack of social security, as well as low levels of productivity throughout the economy. This paper considers an aspect that has not been previously addressed, namely the fact that informality might also affect the way workers match their actual education with that required performing their job. We use micro-data from Colombia to test the relationship between overeducation and informality. Empirical results suggest that, once the endogeneity of employment choice has been accounted for, formal male workers are less likely to be overeducated. Interestingly, the propensity of being overeducated among women does not seem to be closely related to the sector choice.
    Date: 2013–01–06
  5. By: Harari, Mariaflavia; La Ferrara, Eliana
    Abstract: We conduct a geographically and temporally disaggregated empirical analysis of civil conflict at the sub-national level in Africa over the period 1997-2011. Our units of observation are cells of 1 degree of latitude by 1 degree of longitude. We exploit within-year variation in the timing of weather shocks and in the growing season of different crops, as well as spatial variation in crop cover, to construct an original measure of shocks that are relevant for agricultural production. Employing a new drought index we show that negative climate shocks which occur during the growing season of the main crop cultivated in the cell have a sizeable and persistent effect on conflict incidence. We also use state-of-the-art spatial econometric techniques to test for the presence of temporal and spatial spillovers in conflict, and we find both to be sizeable and highly statistically significant. Exploiting variation in the type of conflict episode, we find that the impact of climate shocks on conflict is particularly significant when focusing on outcomes such as battles and violence against civilians. Our estimates can be used to predict how future warming scenarios affect the prevalence and diffusion of conflict.
    Keywords: Africa; civil conflict; gridded data; spatial; weather shocks
    JEL: O12
    Date: 2013–01
  6. By: Padro, Gerard; Qian, Nancy; Yao, Yang
    Abstract: This study examines how the economic effects of elections in rural China depend on voter heterogeneity, for which we proxy with religious fractionalization. We first document religious composition and the introduction of village-level elections for a nearly nationally representative sample of over two hundred villages. Then, we examine the interaction effect of heterogeneity and the introduction of elections on village-government provision of public goods. The interaction effect is negative. We interpret this as evidence that voter heterogeneity constrains the potential benefits of elections for public goods provision.
    Keywords: Democracy; Fractionalization; Pre-Conditions; Religion; Voter Heterogeneity
    JEL: O1 P1
    Date: 2013–01
  7. By: Freund, Caroline; Jaud, Melise
    Abstract: Theory and empirics are ambiguous on the effect of democracy on growth. Cross-country studies find that democracy has no significant impact on growth. In contrast, within-country studies find a strong positive effect of transition to democracy. We reconcile this inconsistency by showing that the positive effect of political transition is a result of swift regime change and not democratization. We identify and examine 90 successful, failed, and gradual transitions that have occurred over the last half century. This new classification permits us to compare successful episodes of democratization with unsuccessful ones -- as opposed to with the counterfactual of no transition. We find that both successful and failed transitions boost long-run growth by about one percentage point, but gradual change is quite costly in economic terms. The results imply that the growth dividend from political transition is a result of regime change and not democratization, and also offer new evidence on the importance of the speed of transition for economic growth. The results are robust to a number of alternative specifications, to stricter and more lenient definitions of democratic transition, and to including reverse transitions.
    Keywords: democratization; event study; political transition
    JEL: N40 O43
    Date: 2013–01
  8. By: Taylor, Alan M.
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the consequences of the internationalization of the Chinese renminbi for the global monetary system and its possible ascension to reserve currency status. In an unstable and financially integrated world, governments’ precautionary demand for reserve assets is likely to increase. But the world then risks a third crisis of the global reserve system, another re-run of the Triffin paradox, with an ever-growing emerging-world insurance demand loaded onto a small group of ever more strained net debt suppliers. Two ways to avoid this outcome would entail either expanding the supply of credible reserve liquidity to include some large emerging-market providers, or finding ways to manage emerging-market risks so as to moderate the perceived need for insurance, and China would have to loom large in both solutions.
    Keywords: China; international reserves; precautionary saving; renminbi; reserve currency; Triffin paradox
    JEL: F01 F02 F33
    Date: 2013–01
  9. By: Besley, Timothy J.; Persson, Torsten
    Abstract: The central question in taxation and development is: "how does a government go from raising around 10% of GDP in taxes to raising around 40%"? This paper looks at the economic and political forces that shape the way that fiscal capacity is created and sustained. As well as reviewing the literature and evidence, it builds an overarching framework to help structure thinking on the topic.
    Keywords: State Capacity; Taxation
    JEL: H11 H20 O17 O43
    Date: 2013–01
  10. By: Cervellati, Matteo; Sunde, Uwe
    Abstract: We propose a unified growth theory to investigate the mechanics generating the economic and demographic transition, and the role of mortality differences for comparative development. The framework can replicate the quantitative patterns in historical time series data and in contemporaneous cross-country panel data, including the bi-modal distribution of the endogenous variables across countries. The results suggest that differences in extrinsic mortality might explain a substantial part of the observed differences in the timing of the take-off across countries and the worldwide density distribution of the main variables of interest.
    Keywords: adult mortality; child mortality; comparative development; development traps; economic and demographic transition; heterogeneous human capital; quantitative analysis; unified growth model
    JEL: E10 J10 J13 N30 O10 O40
    Date: 2013–02
  11. By: Beaman, Lori; Karlan, Dean S.; Thuysbaert, Bram; Udry, Christopher
    Abstract: In an experiment providing fertilizer grants to women rice farmers in Mali, we found that women who received fertilizer increased both the quantity of fertilizer they used on their plots and complementary inputs such as herbicides and hired labor. This highlights that farmers respond to an increase in availability of one input by re-optimizing other inputs, making it challenging to isolate the returns to any one input. We also found that while the increase in inputs led to a significantly higher level of output, we find no evidence that profits increased. Our results suggest that fertilizer's impact on profits is small compared to other sources of variation. This may make it difficult for farmers to observe the impact of fertilizer on their plots, and accordingly this affects their ability to learn about the returns to fertilizer and could affect their decision to adopt even in the absence of credit constraints.
    Keywords: agricultural economics; returns to fertilizer
    JEL: O12 O13 Q12
    Date: 2013–02
  12. By: Combes, Pierre-Philippe; Démurger, Sylvie; Li, Shi
    Abstract: We evaluate the role that cities play on individual productivity in China. First, we show that location explains a large share of nominal wage disparities. Second, even after controlling for individual and firms characteristics and instrumenting city characteristics, the estimated elasticity of wage with respect to employment density is about three times larger than in Western countries. Land area and industrial specialisation also play a significant role whereas the access to external markets does not. Therefore, large agglomeration economies prevail in China and they are more localised than in Western countries. Third, we find evidence of a large positive impact of the local share of migrants on local workers' wages. Overall, these results strongly support the productivity gains that can be expected from further migration and urbanisation in China.
    Keywords: agglomeration economies; China; migration; urban development; wage disparities
    JEL: J31 O18 O53 R12 R23
    Date: 2013–02
  13. By: Williamson, Jeffrey G
    Abstract: This paper explores Southeast Asia's trade performance over the four and a half centuries from 1500 to 1940. It identifies the determinants of the commodity export performance – falling trade costs, income growth of its trading partners, and improved supply conditions at home. It also explores its impact on Southeast Asia's growth performance: trade specialization generated more macro volatility, de-industrialization, rising colonial power, and greater inequality up to World War 1, but these forces turned around in the region thereafter, including some modest industrial Catch-up. Finally, the paper elaborates on the distributional impact and colonial profitability of commodity export booms and busts throughout the last century.
    Keywords: commodities; development; distribution; southeast Asia; trade
    JEL: F14 N15 O53
    Date: 2013–02
  14. By: Jeremy Greenwood (University of Pennsylvania); Philipp Kircher (University of Edinburgh); Cezar Santos (University of Mannheim); Michele Tertilt (University of Mannheim)
    Abstract: Eleven percent of the Malawian population is HIV infected. Eighteen percent of sexual encounters are casual. A condom is used one quarter of the time. A choice-theoretic general equilibrium search model is constructed to analyze the Malawian epidemic. In the developed framework, people select between different sexual practices while knowing the inherent risk. The analysis suggests that the efficacy of public policy depends upon the induced behavioral changes and general equilibrium effects that are typically absent in epidemiological studies and small-scale field experiments. For some interventions (some forms of promoting condoms or marriage), the quantitative exercise suggests that these effects may increase HIV prevalence, while for others (such as male circumcision or increased incomes) they strengthen the effectiveness of the intervention. The underlying channels giving rise to these effects are discussed in detail.
    Keywords: Bayesian learning, circumcision, condoms, disease transmission,HIV/AIDS, homo economicus, Malawi, marriage, policy intervention, sex markets, search, STDs
    JEL: D10 D50 E10 I10 O11
    Date: 2013–04
  15. By: Huu Thanh Tam Nguyen (EPEE, Université d’Evry Val d’Essonne); Med Kechidi (LEREPS, Université Toulouse 1 Capitole); Alexandre Minda (LEREPS, Université Toulouse 1 Capitole)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the export-platform foreign direct investment as a strategic behavior of multinational firms. First, we use a three-country model to identify the main location factors of this investment. These factors are relative labor cost between the host country and the home country and/or the third country, technological transfer cost of host country, intra-regional transport cost and the market size of third country. Particularly, this kind of investment is preferred rather than other entry modes, if and only if, the third market size is high enough. Second, the model is tested for export oriented industries in Vietnam. The integration of the Vietnamese economy into regional or international markets has a positive impact on the choice of export-platform foreign direct investment strategy. In particular, in this country, the first motivation is to access to large markets (ASEAN, U.S., European Union). Other motivations concern low cost of technological transfer and real exchange rate.
    Keywords: Export-platform foreign direct investment, location factors, three-country model, multinational firm, Vietnam
    JEL: F15 F16 F23
    Date: 2013–03
  16. By: Zhang, Xiaobo; Rashid, Shahidur; Ahmad, Kaikaus; Mueller, Valerie; Lee, Hak Lim; Lemma, Solomon; Belal, Saika; Ahmed, Akhter U.
    Abstract: Using data from multiple sources, we show that in Bangladesh, the increase in real wages, particularly female wages, has accelerated since the late 2000s, suggesting that the Lewis turning point (the point at which the labor market starts to shift in favor of workers) has arrived in Bangladesh. Rising wages are likely a result of a combination of more ample job opportunities in the nonfarm sector, especially in the manufacturing sector for females, and a greater amount of remittances, primarily from male workers overseas. Since human capital is the most important asset for the poor, the escalation in real wages has boosted the poor’s earnings, thereby reducing their likelihood of being poor.
    Keywords: Wages; wage rates; Lewis turning point; Labor market; Industrialization; Gender; Women; Remittances;,
    Date: 2013
  17. By: Speer, Johanna; Vásquez, William F.
    Abstract: The purpose of the research summarized in this paper is to provide policy-relevant knowledge on the governance of rural services in Guatemala and thus to contribute to improving the provision of services that are essential for agricultural and rural development. Based on quantitative and qualitative primary data, we examine how services are actually provided today and how community preferences and participation affect service provision in rural Guatemala. Our main finding is that the provision of formally decentralized services by local governments is incomplete.
    Keywords: public services; community involvement; rural areas; Participation; community-based development;,
    Date: 2013
  18. By: Morley, Samuel; Piñeiro, Valeria
    Abstract: In this paper we develop a dynamic regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for Honduras that incorporates regional disaggregated sectors for agriculture. We undertook this research to address two pressing policy concerns in Honduras. First, what growth strategy should the country follow, given its severe balance of payments constraint and dependence on remittances and the price of oil? Second, what would be the impact on growth of investments in projects to increase agricultural productivity, given the importance of agriculture to the rural poor and to the Honduran economy?
    Keywords: Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model; Economic development; macroeconomic impacts; Shocks; Economic policy;,
    Date: 2013
  19. By: Pauw, Karl; Dorosh, Paul A.; Mazunda, John
    Abstract: This study demonstrates why devaluation was ultimately necessary in Malawi and also what its eventual impact might be in terms of prices, income distribution, and domestic production. Our approach is to use a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to evaluate the economywide impacts of foreign exchange shortages in Malawi under two alternative exchange rate regimes. The foreign exchange shortages are modeled by simulating the effect of actual shocks, including tobacco price declines and reductions in direct budgetary support or foreign direct investments. We then evaluate the economy’s response to these shocks under a fixed exchange rate regime and a flexible exchange rate regime.
    Keywords: exchange rate; Devaluation of currency; foreign exchange rationing; Currencies; Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model; Economic policy;,
    Date: 2013
  20. By: Nicola Gennaioli; Rafael La Porta; Florencio Lopez de Silanes; Andrei Shleifer
    Abstract: We use a newly assembled sample of 1,503 regions from 82 countries to compare the speed of per capita income convergence within and across countries. Regional growth is shaped by similar factors as national growth, such as geography and human capital. Regional convergence is about 2.5% per year, not more than 1% per year faster than convergence between countries. Regional convergence is faster in richer countries, and countries with better capital markets. A calibration of a neoclassical growth model suggests that significant barriers to factor mobility within countries are needed to account for the evidence.
    JEL: O43 O47 R11
    Date: 2013–04
  21. By: Hati, Koushik Kumar; Majumder, Rajarshi
    Abstract: In recent days, controlling school dropout has emerged to be the prime hindrance to spread literacy and formation of human resource thereby. The present paper is an attempt to identify proximate determinants of school dropout and suggest probable solutions to the problem. Status of enrollment & dropout at national and state level has been explored using macro data. Thereafter logistic estimation technique using micro level primary survey data has been used to identify factors that affect chances of school attendance. We also observe gender differences in chances of drop out as also differences in factors that affect this. Estimation result has been used to frame policy suggestions so as to improve chances of universalization of education.
    Keywords: School Education, Literacy, Dropout, Logistic Estimation, Gender
    JEL: H11 I21 I24 I25 I28
    Date: 2012–10
  22. By: Ojah Patrick , Ogebe; Joseph Orinya , Ogebe; Kemi , Alewi
    Abstract: This study seeks to investigate the impact of capital structure on firm performance in Nigeria from 2000 to 2010. We considered the impact of some key macroeconomic variables (gross domestic product and inflation) on firm performance. The traditional theory of capital structure was employed to determine the significance of leverage and macroeconomic variables on firm’s performance. The study makes a comparative analysis of the selected firms which are classified into highly and lowly geared firms setting a leverage threshold of above 10% as being highly geared. A static panel analysis was used to achieve the objectives of the study. Using fixed effect regression estimation model, a relationship was established between performance (proxied by return on investment) and leverage of the firms over a period of ten years. The results provide strong evidence in support of the traditional theory of capital structure which asserts that leverage is a significant determinant of firms’ performance. A significant negative relationship is established between leverage and performance. From our findings, we strongly recommended that firms should use more of equity than debt in financing their business activities, this is because in spite of the fact that the value of a business can be enhanced with debt capital, it gets to a point that it becomes detrimental. Each firm should establish with the aid of professional financial managers, that particular debt-equity mix that maximizes its value and minimizes its weighted average cost of capital.
    Keywords: Capital Structure,Firm Performance and Leverage
    JEL: G32
    Date: 2013–04–04
  23. By: Michael Peters (MIT)
    Abstract: There are large and persistent productivity differences across firms within narrowly defined industries. This is especially true in poor countries. Why do productivity differences decline as the economy develops? In this paper I propose a theory where productivity differences exist because different firms use different technologies. The negative correlation between economic development and productivity dispersion occurs because the set of economically viable techniques shrinks as the economy develops. My mechanism stresses the role of managerial inputs. If managers are essential to increase the scale of production, inefficient techniques survive in managerial-scarce economies as productive firms do not have the means to replace them. As the aggregate supply of managers increases, efficient firms expand, best-practice technologies dominate the industry and productivity differences decline. Using firm-level panel data from Chile, I test both cross-sectional and time-series implications of the theory and evaluate different approaches of how to introduce management in firms’ production function.
    Date: 2012
  24. By: Gouel, Christophe
    Abstract: When food prices spike in countries with large numbers of poor people, public intervention is essential to alleviate hunger and malnutrition. For governments, this is also a case of political survival. Government actions often take the form of direct interventions in the market to stabilize food prices, which goes against most international advice to rely on safety nets and world trade. Despite the limitations of food price stabilization policies, they are widespread in developing countries. This paper attempts to untangle the elements of this policy conundrum. Price stabilization policies arise as a result of international and domestic coordination problems. At the individual country level, it is in the national interest of many countries to adjust trade policies to take ad-vantage of the world market in order to achieve domestic price stability. When countercyclical trade policies become widespread, the result is a thinner and less reliable world market, which further decreases the appeal of laissez-faire. A similar vicious circle operates in the domestic market: without effective policies to protect the poor, such as safety nets, food market liberalization lacks credibility and makes private actors reluctant to intervene, which in turn forces government to step in. The current policy challenge lies in designing policies that will build trust in world markets and increase trust between pub-lic and private agents.
    Keywords: Markets and Market Access,Emerging Markets,Access to Markets,Economic Theory&Research,Labor Policies
    Date: 2013–03–01
  25. By: Gersovitz, Mark; Kriger, Norma
    Abstract: The authors argue that the academic literature, both qualitative and quantitative, has mislabeled most episodes of large-scale violence in Africa as civil war; these episodes better fit their concept of regional war complexes. The paper seeks to highlight the fundamental flaws in the conception of civil war in the econometric literature and their implications for econometric specification and estimation, problems that this literature is inherently incapable of rectifying. The authors advocate the comparative study of regional war complexes in Africa based on historical narratives.
    Keywords: Post Conflict Reconstruction,Peace&Peacekeeping,Post Conflict Reintegration,International Affairs,Hazard Risk Management
    Date: 2013–04–01
  26. By: Kandpal, Eeshani; Baylis, Kathy; Arends-Kuenning, Mary
    Abstract: This paper uses primary data from rural north India to show that participation in a community-level female empowerment program significantly increases access to employment, physical mobility, and political participation. The program provides support groups, literacy camps, adult education classes, and vocational training for rural women in several states of India; the data are from Uttarakhand. The paper uses instrumental variables and truncation-corrected matching on primary data to disentangle the program's mechanisms, separately considering its effect on women who work, and those who do not work but whose reservation wage is increased by participation. The analysis also finds significant spillover effects on non-participants relative to women in untreated districts. It finds consistent estimates for average treatment and intent to treat effects
    Keywords: Gender and Law,Population Policies,Primary Education,Social Accountability,Anthropology
    Date: 2013–04–01
  27. By: Dalgaard, Carl-Johan; Strulik, Holger
    Abstract: Unified growth theory predicts that the timing of the fertility transition is a key determinant of contemporary comparative development, as it marks the onset of the take-off to sustained growth. Neoclassical growth theory presupposes a take-off, and explains comparative development by variations in (subsequent) investment rates. The present analysis integrates these two perspectives empirically, and shows that they together constitute a powerful predictive tool vis-a-vis contemporary income differences. --
    Keywords: comparative development,unified growth theory,neoclassical growth theory
    JEL: O11 O57
    Date: 2013

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