nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2024‒02‒05
two papers chosen by
Héctor Pifarré i Arolas, University of Wisconsin

  1. The Child Penalty Atlas By Henrik Kleven; Camille Landais; Gabriel Leite-Mariante
  2. Long-term Exposure to Ambient PM2.5 and Population Health: Evidence from Longitudinally-linked Census Data By Rowland, Neil; McVicar, Duncan; Vlachos, Stavros; Jahanshahi, Babak; McGovern, Mark E.; O’Reilly, Dermot

  1. By: Henrik Kleven (Princeton University, NBER, and CEPR); Camille Landais (London School of Economics and CEPR); Gabriel Leite-Mariante (London School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper builds a world atlas of child penalties in employment based on micro data from 134 countries. The estimation of child penalties is based on pseudo-event studies of first child birth using cross-sectional data. The pseudo-event studies are validated against true event studies using panel data for a subset of countries. Most countries display clear and sizable child penalties: men and women follow parallel trends before parenthood, but diverge sharply and persistently after parenthood. While this pattern is pervasive, there is enormous variation in the magnitude of the effects across different regions of the world. The fraction of gender inequality explained by child penalties varies systematically with economic development and proxies for structural transformation. At low levels of development, child penalties represent a minuscule fraction of gender inequality. But as economies develop — incomes rise and the labor market transitions from subsistence agriculture towards salaried work in industry and services — child penalties take over as the dominant driver of gender inequality. Because parenthood is often tied to marriage, we also investigate the existence of marriage penalties in female employment. In general, women experience both marriage and child penalties, but their relative importance depends on economic development. The development process is associated with a substitution from marriage penalties to child penalties, with the former gradually converging to zero.
    Keywords: Child Penalties
    JEL: E24
    Date: 2023–08
  2. By: Rowland, Neil; McVicar, Duncan; Vlachos, Stavros; Jahanshahi, Babak; McGovern, Mark E.; O’Reilly, Dermot
    Abstract: Extensive evidence shows exposure to ambient PM2.5 is associated with a wide range of poor health outcomes. But few studies examine genuinely long-run pollution exposures in nationally representative data. This study does so, exploiting longitudinally-linked Census data for Northern Ireland, linked to annual average PM2.5 concentrations at the 1km grid-square level from 2002-2010, exploiting complete residential histories. We show strong unconditional associations between PM2.5 exposure, self-rated general health, disability, and all available (eleven) domain-specific health measures in the data. Associations with poor general health, chronic illness, breathing difficulties, mobility difficulties, and deafness are robust to extensive conditioning and to further analysis designed to examine sensitivity to unobserved confounders.
    Keywords: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution, PM2.5, population health, linked Census data, neighbourhood fixed effects, Oster method for unobserved confounding
    JEL: I10 I18 Q53
    Date: 2024

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