nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2023‒11‒27
five papers chosen by
Héctor Pifarré i Arolas, University of Wisconsin

  1. The economics of women’s rights By Tertilt, Michèle; Doepke, Matthias; Hannusch, Anne; Montenbruck, Laura
  2. Does the Child Penalty Strike Twice, and If So Why? By Gørtz, Mette; Sander, Sarah; Sevilla, Almudena
  3. The End of Rapid Population Growth By Amy Smaldone; Mark L. J. Wright
  4. Social Insurance against a Short Life: Ante-Mortem versus Post-Mortem Policies By Ponthiere, Gregory
  5. An Age–Period–Cohort Model in a Dirichlet Framework: A Coherent Causes of Death Estimation By Graziani, Rebecca; NIGRI, ANDREA

  1. By: Tertilt, Michèle; Doepke, Matthias; Hannusch, Anne; Montenbruck, Laura
    Abstract: Two centuries ago, in most countries around the world, women were unable to vote, had no say over their own children or property, and could not obtain a divorce. Women have gradually gained rights in many areas of life, and this legal expansion has been closely intertwined with economic development. We aim to understand the drivers behind these reforms. To this end, we distinguish between four types of dwomen’s rights—economic, political, labor, and body—and document their evolution over the past 50 years across countries. We summarize the political-economy mechanisms that link economic development to changes in women’s rights and show empirically that these mechanisms account for a large share of the variation in women’s rights across countries and over time.
    Keywords: women's rights; female suffrage; family economics; bargaining; political economy
    JEL: D13 D72 E24 J12 J16 N30 N40 O10
    Date: 2022–12–21
  2. By: Gørtz, Mette (University of Copenhagen); Sander, Sarah (University of Copenhagen); Sevilla, Almudena (London School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper compares the labor market impact of grandparents before and after the arrival of the first grandchild. We show that grandmothers' labor market outcomes decline more steeply than grandfathers' after the first grandchild's arrival, leading to a 4-10 percent gender earnings gap 5-10 years later. The child penalty is shifted across generations to grandmothers with low education, but daycare availability only affects child penalties. Gender biases towards older women's work are a contributing factor to the disparity in earnings between grandmothers and grandfathers after the arrival of the first grandchild.
    Keywords: grandchildren, female labor supply, gender, inequality, retirement
    JEL: J13 J14 J16 J22
    Date: 2023–10
  3. By: Amy Smaldone; Mark L. J. Wright
    Abstract: The world’s population had been doubling every 47 years to reach 8 billion today. But it is expected to peak at 10.5 billion before declining by century’s end.
    Keywords: world population; global population; fertility rates; life expectancy at birth; population aging
    Date: 2023–03–06
  4. By: Ponthiere, Gregory
    Abstract: Welfare States do not insure citizens against the risk of premature death, i.e., the risk of having a short life. Using a dynamic OLG model with risky lifetime, this paper compares two insurance devices reducing well-being volatility due to the risk of early death: (i) an ante-mortem age-based statistical discrimination policy that consists of an allowance given to all young adults (including the unidentified adults who will die early); (ii) a post-mortem subsidy on accidental bequests due to early death. Each policy is financed by taxing old-age consumption. Whereas each device can yield full insurance, the youth allowance is shown to imply a higher lifetime well-being at the stationary equilibrium. The marginal utility of consumption exceeding the marginal utility of giving when being dead, the youth allowances system is, despite imperfect targeting, a more effi cient mechanism of insurance against the risk of early death.
    Keywords: premature death, mortality risk, social insurance, inheritance, lifecycle models
    JEL: J10 J17 I31 E21 H55
    Date: 2023
  5. By: Graziani, Rebecca; NIGRI, ANDREA
    Abstract: Though pivotal in longevity studies, multi-outcome modelling is largely neglected in the associated statistical literature. Here, we focus on the case of compositional data, especially relevant in longevity analysis, where overall mortality can be described as the composition of several causes of death. We propose an age–period–cohort model within the Dirichlet framework with a specific interest in its use for modelling longevity with multiple causes of death. We introduce a flexible approach to incorporating the Dirichlet distribution into the age–period– cohort framework. Then, using US cause-specific mortality data, we provide a comprehensive discussion and comparison of alternative modelling approaches.
    Date: 2023–11–02

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