nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2023‒07‒10
five papers chosen by
Héctor Pifarré i Arolas
University of Wisconsin

  1. 75 years of Population Studies: a diamond anniversary special issue By Sigle, Wendy; Reid, Alice; Sear, Rebecca
  2. Reconciling Estimates of the Long-Term Earnings Effect of Fertility By Bensnes, Simon; Huitfeldt, Ingrid; Leuven, Edwin
  3. The Causal Effect of Ethnic Diversity on Support for Redistribution and the Role of Discrimination By Achard, Pascal; Suetens, Sigrid
  4. Racial Discrimination and the Social Contract: Evidence from U.S. Army Enlistment during WWII By Nancy Qian; Marco Tabellini
  5. sendemails: An automated email package with multiple applications By Luca Fumarco; S. M. Gaddis; Francesco Sarracino; Iain Snoddy

  1. By: Sigle, Wendy; Reid, Alice; Sear, Rebecca
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2021–12–15
  2. By: Bensnes, Simon (Statistics Norway); Huitfeldt, Ingrid (Norwegian Business School (BI)); Leuven, Edwin (University of Oslo)
    Abstract: This paper presents novel methodological and empirical contributions to the child penalty literature. We propose a new estimator that combines elements from standard event study and instrumental variable estimators and demonstrate their relatedness. Our analysis shows that all three approaches yield substantial estimates of the long-term impact of children on the earnings gap between mothers and their partners, commonly known as the child penalty, ranging from 11 to 18 percent. However, the models not only estimate different magnitudes of the child penalty, they also lead to very different conclusions as to whether it is mothers or partners who drive this penalty – the key policy concern. While the event study attributes the entire impact to mothers, our results suggest that maternal responses account for only around one fourth of the penalty. Our paper also has broader implications for event-study designs. In particular, we assess the validity of the event-study assumptions using external information and characterize biases arising from selection in treatment timing. We find that women time fertility as their earnings profile flattens. The implication of this is that the event-study overestimates women's earnings penalty as it relies on estimates of counterfactual wage profiles that are too high. These new insights in the nature of selection into fertility show that common intuitions regarding parallel trend assumptions may be misleading, and that pre-trends may be uninformative about the sign of the selection bias in the treatment period.
    Keywords: child penalty, female labor supply, event study, instrumental variable
    JEL: C36 J13 J16 J21 J22 J31
    Date: 2023–05
  3. By: Achard, Pascal; Suetens, Sigrid (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research)
    Keywords: redistribution; ethnic diversity; political preferences; immigration; discrimination; prejudice
    Date: 2023
  4. By: Nancy Qian (Northwestern University,); Marco Tabellini (Harvard Business School,)
    Abstract: This paper documents several new facts about the relationship between discrimination and political exclusion and the motivation to fight in wartime. The Pearl Harbor attack triggered a sharp increase in volunteer enlistment rates of American men, the magnitude of the increase was smaller for Black men than for white men and the Black-white gap was larger in counties with higher levels of racial discrimination. Discrimination reduced the quantity and the quality of Black volunteers. The discouraging effects of discrimination were more pronounced in places that were geographically distant from Pearl Harbor and in states that had joined the Union relatively recently. For Japanese-American men, enlistment rates were higher where the Japanese-American community was not interred than where it was interred. These and other results provide empirical support for the theory that discrimination and political exclusion reduce support for the government when it is under threat.
    Keywords: Political and Economic Exclusion, Social Contract, Nation Building
    JEL: D72 J15 N92 P16
    Date: 2023–06
  5. By: Luca Fumarco (Masaryk University, IZA, and GLO; Brno); S. M. Gaddis (University of California, and Northwest Evaluation Association; Los Angeles, California, United States); Francesco Sarracino (STATEC Research, and GLO; Luxembourgs); Iain Snoddy (Analysis Group; Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada)
    Abstract: Correspondence audits are a popular method to examine discrimination in a causal framework. However, they often require sending hundreds or thousands of emails to subjects. The sendemails package allows users to automatically send emails with Stata through PowerShell, which is open-source and cross-platform. Researchers can use this package to perform several email tasks, such as contacting students or colleagues with standardized messages. Additionally, researchers can perform more complex tasks that entail sending randomized messages with multiple attachments from multiple accounts, tasks that are often necessary to conduct correspondence audit tests. This paper introduces the command and illustrates multiple examples of its application.
    Keywords: sendemails, PowerShell, email
    JEL: C8
    Date: 2023–06

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