nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2023‒06‒26
seven papers chosen by
Héctor Pifarré i Arolas
University of Wisconsin

  1. A global perspective on the social structure of science By Aliakbar Akbaritabar; Andrés F. Castro Torres; Vincent Larivière
  2. Healthy immigrants, unhealthy ageing? analysis of health decline among older migrants and natives across European countries By Su Yeon Jang; Anna Oksuzyan; Mikko Myrskylä; Frank J. van Lenthe; Silvia Loi
  3. Re-partnering and fertility By LUPPI, FRANCESCA; Migheli, Matteo; Pronzato, Chiara
  4. Event history analysis with two time scales. An application to transitions out of cohabitation By Carollo, Angela; Putter, Hein; Eilers, Paul H. C.; Gampe, Jutta
  5. Unintended Consequences of Family Planning Policies on the Breastfeeding Gap between Sons and Daughters By Chae, Minhee; Cai, Yong; Kim, Jun Hyung; Lavely, William
  6. Valuing a reduction in the risk of infertility: A large scale multi-country stated preference approach By Damien Dussaux; Andrea Leiter; Väinö Nurmi; Christoph Rheinberger
  7. Time Use and Macroeconomic Uncertainty By Matteo Cacciatore; Stefano Gnocchi; Daniela Hauser

  1. By: Aliakbar Akbaritabar (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Andrés F. Castro Torres (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Vincent Larivière
    Abstract: We reconstruct the career-long productivity, impact, (inter)national collaboration, and (inter)national mobility trajectory of 8.2 million scientists worldwide. We study the interrelationships among four well-established bibliometric claims about academics’ productivity, collaboration, mobility, and visibility. Scrutinizing these claims is only possible with a global perspective simultaneously considering influential bibliometric variables alongside collaboration among scientists. We use Multiple Correspondence Analysis with a combination of 12 widely-used bibliometric variables. We further analyze the networks of collaboration among these authors in the form of a bipartite co-authorship network and detect densely collaborating communities using Constant Potts Model. We found that the claims of literature on increased productivity, collaboration, and mobility are principally driven by a small fraction of influential scientists (top 10%). We find a hierarchically clustered structure with a small top class, and large middle and bottom classes. Investigating the composition of communities of collaboration networks in terms of these top-to-bottom classes and the academic age distribution shows that those at the top succeed by collaborating with a varying group of authors from other classes and age groups. Nevertheless, they are benefiting disproportionately to a much higher degree from this collaboration and its outcome in form of impact and citations.
    Keywords: World, inequality, science
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2023
  2. By: Su Yeon Jang (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Anna Oksuzyan (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Mikko Myrskylä (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Frank J. van Lenthe; Silvia Loi (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)
    Abstract: Immigrants face a particularly high risk of unhealthy ageing. It is well-known that the probability of having multiple chronic conditions simultaneously, or multimorbidity, tends to increase with age. This study investigates the immigrant-native disparities in age-related health decline, focusing on the number of chronic health conditions; and considers the heterogeneity of this decline within immigrant populations by origin and receiving country. We use data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe on adults aged 50 to 79 from 28 European countries, and employ fixed-effects regression models to account for the unobserved heterogeneity related to individual characteristics, including migration background. Our results indicate that immigrants have a higher number of chronic conditions at all ages relative to their native-born peers, but also that the immigrant-native differential in the number of chronic conditions decreases from age 65 onwards. When considering differences by origin country, we find that the speed of chronic disease accumulation is slower among immigrants from the Americas and the Asia and Oceania country groups than it among natives. When looking at differences by receiving country group, we observe that the speed of health decline is slower among immigrants in Eastern Europe than among natives, particularly at older ages. Our findings suggest that age-related trajectories of health vary substantially among immigrant populations by origin and destination country, which underscore that individual migration histories play a persistent role in shaping the health of ageing immigrant populations throughout the life course.
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2023
  3. By: LUPPI, FRANCESCA; Migheli, Matteo; Pronzato, Chiara
    Abstract: European divorce rates have been on the rise since the 1970s. At the same time, as more couples opt for cohabitation over marriage, there has been an increase in separations among cohabiting partners. Nearly 50% of separated individuals form new relationships within five years. These trends may have implications for fertility research. Are re-partnered mothers more likely to continue bearing children than never-separated mothers? Does quick re-partnering lead to the recovery of births “lost” due to separation? To answer these questions, we use longitudinal data from 2004 to 2018 for 32 European countries. We find that mothers in higher order unions are - on average – more likely to have one more child than those who already have children with their current partner. The former seem to be less burdened by already having children and less concerned about family income. Our data show that if separation occurs at a relatively young age and re-partnering occurs relatively quickly, then births lost to union dissolution can be recovered.
    Date: 2023–05–18
  4. By: Carollo, Angela (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research); Putter, Hein; Eilers, Paul H. C.; Gampe, Jutta
    Abstract: Event history models are based on transition rates between states and, to define such hazards of experiencing an event, the time scale over which the process evolves needs to be identified. In many applications, however, more than one time scale might be of importance. Here we demonstrate how to model a hazard jointly over two time dimensions. The model assumes a smooth bivariate hazard function, and the function is estimated by two-dimensional P-splines. We provide an R-package TwoTimeScales for the analysis of event history data with two time scales. As an example, we model transitions from cohabitation to marriage or separation simultaneously over the age of the individual and the duration of the cohabitation. We use data from the German Family Panel (pairfam) and demonstrate that considering the two time scales as equally important provides additional insights about the transition from cohabitation to marriage or separation.
    Date: 2023–05–18
  5. By: Chae, Minhee (Nankai University); Cai, Yong (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill); Kim, Jun Hyung (Jinan University); Lavely, William (University of Washington)
    Abstract: We examine the effect of a Chinese family planning policy (FPP) known as "Later, Longer, and Fewer" on the gender gap in breastfeeding. We find that FPP increased the daughter-son breastfeeding gap in favor of sons in rural areas. Mean intensity of the FPP predicts the gender gap to be 35% greater than the gap without FPP. The effects are explained by the skewed gender composition of last-born children produced by sex-selective stopping behavior. The findings indicate a way in which FPP, in the context of son preference, widens gender gap in child development.
    Keywords: "Later, breastfeeding, son preference, family planning, Longer, Fewer" campaign
    JEL: J1 J13 J16 J18
    Date: 2023–05
  6. By: Damien Dussaux; Andrea Leiter; Väinö Nurmi; Christoph Rheinberger
    Abstract: While fertility decline is a global phenomenon that has many causes, part of it can be explained by exposure to substances linked to reproductive toxicity that are produced and lead to human exposure through the environment and products. Authorities face challenges in regulating reprotoxic substances through actions such as bans and prohibitions, because of the difficulty in explicitly considering the economic benefits and costs of such regulations. Moreover, economic studies that show the value of reducing infertility caused by chemical exposure are not yet available.This paper is part of the series of large scale willingness to pay (WTP) studies resulting from the Surveys to elicit Willingness to pay to Avoid Chemicals related negative Health Effects (SWACHE) project that intends to improve the basis for doing cost benefit analyses of chemicals management options and environmental policies in general. The present paper details a stated preference survey estimating WTP to reduce the risk of infertility, filling an important gap in the valuation literature and addressing a need for applied benefits analysis for chemicals regulation. The SWACHE infertility survey was fielded in 10 countries: Australia, Canada, Chile, Germany, Japan, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States.
    Keywords: chemicals regulation, economic valuation, health risk, health valuation, infertility, monetised benefits, morbidity valuation, non-market valuation, stated preferences, surveys, value of a statistical case, willingness-to-pay
    JEL: D61 J17 K32 Q51 Q53 Q58 I18
    Date: 2023–06–05
  7. By: Matteo Cacciatore; Stefano Gnocchi; Daniela Hauser
    Abstract: We estimate the effects of economic uncertainty on time use and discuss its macroeconomic implications. Using data from the American Time Use Survey, we first infer cyclical variation in home production and leisure time. We then document that higher uncertainty increases housework and reduces market hours worked, with modest effects on leisure. Finally, we propose a model of housework with time-varying uncertainty that quantitatively accounts for these results. We use the model to demonstrate that substitution between market and non-market work provides an additional insurance margin to households, weakening precautionary savings and labor supply. However, time-use reallocation also lowers aggregate demand, ultimately amplifying the contractionary effects of uncertainty. Policies that reallocate time use toward housework (e.g., lockdown restrictions) amplify the recessionary effects of uncertainty and can result in aggregate dynamics consistent with a supply-side shock.
    Keywords: Business fluctuations and cycles; Coronavirus disease (COVID-19); Domestic demand and components; Monetary policy and uncertainty
    JEL: E24 E32 E52 J22
    Date: 2023–05

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