nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2023‒03‒13
three papers chosen by
Héctor Pifarré i Arolas
University of Wisconsin

  1. Immigrant-native health disparities: an intersectional perspective on the weathering hypothesis By Silvia Loi; Peng Li; Mikko Myrskylä
  2. Marriage, Labor Supply and the Dynamics of the Social Safety Net By Hamish Low; Costas Meghir; Luigi Pistaferri; Alessandra Voena
  3. Inequalities in disability-free and disabling multimorbid life expectancy in Costa Rica, Mexico, and the United States By Anastasia A. Lam; Katherine Keenan; Genevieve Cezard; Hill Kulu; Mikko Myrskylä

  1. By: Silvia Loi (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Peng Li (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Mikko Myrskylä (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)
    Abstract: The weathering hypothesis implies that there is an interaction between age and race or ethnicity that results in disadvantaged groups experiencing a more rapid decline in health than other groups. While the weathering hypothesis has been tested based on racial or ethnic identity, less is known about weathering by immigration status, and about weathering as viewed from an intersectional perspective. We contribute to the literature on weathering by addressing three research questions: Are immigrants, and especially immigrant women, ageing in poorer health? Does education protect immigrants from a faster health decline with age? How do income and marital status affect the health trajectories of immigrants and natives? We focus on Germany and estimate trajectories of declining health at the intersection of age, sex, and nativity, and evaluate the role of education. We estimate the ages at immigrant-native crossover across the health trajectories, and the corresponding health levels. We find that immigrants, and especially immigrant women, age in poorer health than natives. Furthermore, we show that high education explains the differential relationship between age, nativity, and health. We also find that employment and marital status only partly account for the observed gaps, as differences persist even after these factors are considered.
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2023
  2. By: Hamish Low (University of Oxford and IFS); Costas Meghir (Cowles Foundation, Yale University); Luigi Pistaferri (Stanford University, NBER, CEPR and SIEPR); Alessandra Voena (Stanford University, NBER, CEPR and SIEPR)
    Abstract: The 1996 US welfare reform introduced time limits on welfare receipt. We use quasi-experimental evidence and a lifecycle model of marriage, divorce, program participa-tion, labor supply and savings to understand the impact of time limits on behavior and well-being. Time limits cause women to defer claiming in anticipation of future needs, an effect that depends on the probabilities of marriage and divorce. Time limits cost women 0.5% of life-time consumption, net of revenue savings redistributed by reduced taxation, with some groups affected much more. Expectations over future marital status are important determinants of the value of the social safety net.
    Keywords: Time limits, Welfare reform, Life-cycle, marriage and divorce, time limits, limited commitment, intrahousehold allocations
    JEL: D91 H53 J12 J21
    Date: 2022–12
  3. By: Anastasia A. Lam (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Katherine Keenan; Genevieve Cezard; Hill Kulu (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Mikko Myrskylä (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)
    Abstract: Existing research on multimorbidity (two or more co-existing chronic diseases) has mainly been cross-sectional, prevalence-based, and from high-income countries, although rates of chronic diseases and related mortality are highest in low- and middle-income countries. There is also a lack of research comparing countries at varying levels of development to determine how multimorbidity progression might differ. This study uses longitudinal data from Costa Rica, Mexico, and the United States and an incidence-based multistate Markov approach to estimate multimorbid life expectancy (MMLE): the years someone is expected to live with multimorbidity. We disaggregate MMLE into disability-free and disabling states to understand severity progression and stratify models by gender and education to study within-country heterogeneity. Individuals from Costa Rica have the lowest MMLE, followed by those from Mexico, then the United States. Individuals from the United States spend about twice as long with disability-free MMLE compared to others. Women generally have higher MMLE than men across countries. In the United States, disability-free MMLE increases and disabling MMLE decreases with education. This study found widespread MMLE inequalities in gender, education, and disability status. More attention must be paid to the drivers of these disparities, such as life course and health system differences across contexts.
    Keywords: Costa Rica, Mexico, USA, ageing, chronic diseases, developing countries, inequality, life expectancy, multi-state life tables
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2023

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