nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2023‒02‒20
six papers chosen by
Héctor Pifarré i Arolas
University of Wisconsin

  1. The Economics of Woman's Rights The Mary Paley and Alfred Marshall Lecture By Michele Tertilt; Matthias Doepke; Anne Hannusch; Laura Montenbruck
  2. Macroeconomics of aging By Betti, Thierry; Lefebvre, Mathieu; Pestieau, Pierre
  3. Impact of Forced Sterilization on Female Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from India By Prasad, Niranjana
  4. Parental Beliefs, Perceived Health Risks, and Time Investment in Children: Evidence from COVID-19 By Gabriella Conti; Michele Giannola; Alessandro Toppeta
  5. Unequal Gradients: Sex, Skin Tone, and Intergenerational Economic Mobility By Monroy-Gómez-Franco, Luis Angel; Vélez-Grajales, Roberto; Yalonetzky, Gastón
  6. QALYs, DALYs, and HALYs: a unifying framework for the evaluation of population health By Juan D. Moreno-Ternero; Trine T. Platz; Lars P. Østerdal

  1. By: Michele Tertilt; Matthias Doepke; Anne Hannusch; Laura Montenbruck
    Abstract: Two centuries ago, in most countries around the world, women were unable to vote, had no say over their own children or property, and could not obtain a divorce. Women have gradually gained rights in many areas of life, and this legal expansion has been closely intertwined with economic development. We aim to understand the drivers behind these reforms. To this end, we distinguish between four types of women’s rights—economic, political, labor, and body—and document their evolution over the past 50 years across countries. We summarize the political-economy mechanisms that link economic development to changes in women’s rights and show empirically that these mechanisms account for a large share of the variation in women’s rights across countries and over time
    Keywords: Women's Rights, Female Suffrage, Family Economics, Bargaining, Political Economy
    JEL: D13 D72 E24 J12 J16 N4 N30 O10 O43
    Date: 2022–11
  2. By: Betti, Thierry; Lefebvre, Mathieu; Pestieau, Pierre (Université catholique de Louvain, LIDAM/CORE, Belgium)
    Abstract: The purpose of this chapter is to analyze the effects that population aging, and specifically the increase in longevity, may have on capital accumulation and the welfare of society. Throughout our analysis, we use as back bone a two-period overlapping generation model with variable longevity, distinguishing between the case when longevity increase is exogenous and the case when it is endogenous, namely partially the responsibility of individuals or governments. In each section, we first provide the result arising from our central model and then review the relevant literature. Keywords: Longevity, OLG models, Capital accumulation.
    Keywords: Longevity ; OLG models ; Capital accumulation
    JEL: H55 I12 I13 J10 J11
    Date: 2023–01–01
  3. By: Prasad, Niranjana (Université catholique de Louvain, LIDAM/CORE, Belgium)
    Abstract: I investigate the impact of the 1975-76 forced sterilization campaign carried out by the Indira Gandhi government in India on women’s long run labor market outcomes. Using large data samples from India and accounting for endogeneity concerns, I find that exposure to the forced sterilization campaign at the district-level reduces long-term labor market participation by 4.5% and 1.5% in agricultural and sales occupations and increases unemployment by 4.7% and I elucidate mechanisms. The proposed mechanism of this is the disutility derived from having a working wife. This result is contrary to existing literature that indicates that women’s access to contraception increases their labor market participation, in the context of coercive sterilization campaigns.
    Keywords: India ; Emergency ; family planning ; sterilization ; labor market outcomes
    JEL: J13 J21
    Date: 2022–10–18
  4. By: Gabriella Conti (University College London); Michele Giannola (University of Naples Federico II); Alessandro Toppeta (University College London)
    Abstract: When deciding how to allocate their time among different types of investment in their children, parents weigh up the perceived benefits and costs of different activities. During the COVID-19 outbreak parents had to consider a new cost dimension when making this decision: the perceived health risks associated with contracting the virus. What role did parental beliefs about risks and returns play for the allocation of time with children during the pandemic? We answer this question by collecting rich data on a sample of first-time parents in England during the first lockdown, including elicitation of perceived risks and returns to different activities via hypothetical scenarios. We find that parents perceive their own time investment to be (i) more productive and (ii) less risky than the time spent by their children in formal childcare or with peers. Using open-ended questions about their pandemic experience and detailed time use data on children’s daily activities, we then show that parental beliefs are predictive of actual investment choices, and are correlated with parental feelings derived from sentiment analysis. Lastly, we show that less educated parents perceive both lower returns and lower risks from investments, potentially causing a further widening of pre-existing inequalities in early years development, and suggesting the need for targeted informational interventions.
    Keywords: parental beliefs, health risks, time investments, text data, COVID-19
    JEL: I10 D13 J13
    Date: 2022–11
  5. By: Monroy-Gómez-Franco, Luis Angel (The City College of New York); Vélez-Grajales, Roberto; Yalonetzky, Gastón
    Abstract: We study how the intersection between skin tone and sex shapes intergenerational mobility of economic resources in Mexico. Using two recent social mobility surveys, we estimate the rank persistence and transition matrices by sex combined with skin tone groups. First, we find no differences in intergenerational mobility patterns between light-skin men and women. Second, the colorist mobility pattern observed in previous literature affects men and women differently. Namely, while women of intermediate and dark-skin tonalities have a lower expected rank than their light-skin peers, only men of the darkest tonalities suffer from the same penalization. Thirdly, women of intermediate and darker skin tones have lower persistence rates at the top of the distribution of economic resources than men of the same skin tonality. (Stone Center on Socio-Economic Inequality Working Paper)
    Date: 2023–01–24
  6. By: Juan D. Moreno-Ternero (Department of Economics, Universidad Pablo de Olavide); Trine T. Platz (Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen); Lars P. Østerdal (Department of Economics, Copenhagen Business School)
    Abstract: We provide a unifying framework for the evaluation of population health. We formalize several axioms for social preferences over distributions of health. We show that a specific combination of those axioms characterizes a large class of population health evaluation functions combining concerns for quality of life, quantity of life and health shortfalls. We refer to the class as (unweighted) aggregations of health-adjusted life years (HALYs). Two focal (and polar) members of this family are the (unweighted) aggregations of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). We also provide new characterization results for these focal members that enable us to scrutinize their normative foundations and shed new light on their similarities and differences.
    Keywords: population health, QALYs, DALYs, HYEs, axioms.
    JEL: D63 I10
    Date: 2023

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