nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2022‒11‒21
six papers chosen by
Héctor Pifarré i Arolas
University of Wisconsin

  1. Is Parental Leave Costly for Firms and Coworkers? By Brenøe, Anne; Canaan, Serena; Royer, Heather; Harmon, Nikolaj
  2. Workplace Presenteeism, Job Substitutability and Gender Inequality By Ghazala Azmat; Lena Hensvik; Olof Rosenqvist
  3. Analysis of Twins By Bhalotra, Sonia R.; Clarke, Damian
  4. Racial disparities in deaths related to extreme temperatures in the United States between 1993 and 2005 By Risto Conte Keivabu; Ugofilippo Basellini; Emilio Zagheni
  5. Does population sorting through internal migration increase healthcare costs and needs in peripheral regions? By Kulshreshtha, Shobhit; Salm, Martin; Wübker, Ansgar
  6. The Effects of Admitting Immigrants: A Look at Japan’s School and Pension Systems By Jinno, Masatoshi; Yasuoka, Masaya

  1. By: Brenøe, Anne; Canaan, Serena; Royer, Heather; Harmon, Nikolaj
    JEL: H0 J13 J2
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Ghazala Azmat (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CEP - LSE - Centre for Economic Performance - LSE - London School of Economics and Political Science); Lena Hensvik (Uppsala University); Olof Rosenqvist (IFAU - The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy)
    Abstract: Following the arrival of the first child, women's absence rates soar and become less predictable. This fall in workplace presenteeism harms women's wages, especially in jobs with low substitutability. Although both presenteeism and job uniqueness are rewarded, we document that women's likelihood of holding jobs with low substitutability decreases relative to men's after childbearing. This gap persists, with important long-run wage implications. We highlight that the parenthood wage penalty for women could be reduced by organizing work so that more employees have tasks that can be performed satisfactorily by other employees in the workplace.
    Keywords: Work absence,Job substitutability,Gender wage inequality
    Date: 2021–11
  3. By: Bhalotra, Sonia R. (University of Warwick); Clarke, Damian (University of Chile)
    Abstract: The occurrence of twin births has been widely used as a natural experiment. With a focus upon the use of twin births for identification of causal effects in economics, this chapter provides a critical review of methods and results.
    Keywords: twins, identification, fertility, birth spacing, child development, women's labour market outcomes, child penalty
    JEL: D10 I26 J13 J24
    Date: 2022–09
  4. By: Risto Conte Keivabu (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Ugofilippo Basellini (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Emilio Zagheni (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Kulshreshtha, Shobhit; Salm, Martin; Wübker, Ansgar
    Abstract: Large regional disparities in health and healthcare costs prevail in many countries, but our understanding of the underlying causes is still limited. This study shows for the case of the Netherlands that population sorting through internal migration can explain a substantial share, around 28%, of regional variation in healthcare costs. Internal migration during the 1998-2018 period increases average healthcare costs in peripheral provinces by up to 3%. Most of this effect can be attributed to selective migration. We find similar results for risk scores, a measure of healthcare needs. The Dutch risk equalization scheme compensates only partially for these effects.
    Keywords: Regional variation in healthcare costs,internal migration,movers approach,regionaldisparities
    JEL: H51 I14 R23
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Jinno, Masatoshi; Yasuoka, Masaya
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of admitting immigrants to Japan on the welfare of native Japanese residents. The paper considers the imperfect substitutability between native and immigrant laborers in line with the pension and education systems. It is argued that immigration may have indirect negative effects, for example, imposing the additional burden of educating immigrant children who require additional support to master the Japanese culture, customs, and language. This research uses numerical data analysis of Japan. The findings indicate that admitting immigrants, even when they are not perfectly complementary, might increase the wage level and the utility of the natives. There are also direct implications on the type of pension system that is available for natives and immigrants. This study recommends that the defined replacement rate pension system is preferable for natives when there is a relatively substitutable relationship between natives and immigrants.
    Keywords: Immigrants, Burden of schooling, Pension, Substitutability, Complementarity.
    JEL: H52 H55 J61
    Date: 2022–10–27

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