nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2022‒10‒03
four papers chosen by
Héctor Pifarré i Arolas
University of Wisconsin

  1. Internal Migration in the United States: Rates, Selection, and Destination Choice, 1850-1940 By Ariell Zimran
  2. Covering Undocumented Immigrants: The Effects of a Large-Scale Prenatal Care Intervention By Sarah Miller; Laura Wherry
  3. Refugee Migration and the Labor Market: Lessons from 40 Years of Post-arrival Policies in Denmark By Arendt, Jacob Nielsen; Dustmann, Christian; Ku, Hyejin
  4. Effects of Anti-Corruption Audits on Early-Life Mortality: Evidence from Brazil By Antonio P. Ramos; Simeon Nichter; Leiwen Gao; Gustavo J. Bobonis

  1. By: Ariell Zimran
    Abstract: I study the internal migration of native-born white men in the United States using linked census data covering all possible 10- and 20-year periods 1850--1940. Inter-county migration rates were stable over time. Selection into migration on the basis of occupational status was also largely stable and was neutral or slightly negative. But the orientation of internal migration changed, declining in distance, becoming more directed towards the west, and increasingly driving urbanization. These patterns changed in the 1930s as migration became less common and less urban oriented. These results provide a clearer understanding of historic US internal migration than previously possible.
    JEL: J61 N31 N32 O15
    Date: 2022–08
  2. By: Sarah Miller; Laura Wherry
    Abstract: Undocumented immigrants are ineligible for public insurance coverage for prenatal care in most states, despite their children representing a large fraction of births and having U.S. citizenship. In this paper, we examine a policy that expanded Medicaid pregnancy coverage to undocumented immigrants. Using a novel dataset that links California birth records to Census surveys, we identify siblings born to immigrant mothers before and after the policy. Implementing a mothers' fixed effects design, we find that the policy increased coverage for and use of prenatal care among pregnant immigrant women, and increased average gestation length and birth weight among their children.
    Date: 2022–08
  3. By: Arendt, Jacob Nielsen (Rockwool Foundation Research Unit); Dustmann, Christian (University College London); Ku, Hyejin (University College London)
    Abstract: Denmark has accepted refugees from a large variety of countries and for more than four decades. Denmark has also frequently changed policies and regulations concerning integration programs, transfer payments, and conditions for permanent residency. Such policy variation in conjunction with excellent administrative data provides an ideal laboratory to evaluate the effects of different immigration and integration policies on the outcomes of refugee immigrants. In this article, we first describe the Danish experience with refugee immigration over the past four decades. We then review different post-arrival refugee policies and summarize studies that evaluate their effects on the labor market performance of refugees. Lastly, we discuss and contrast these findings in the context of international studies of similar policies and draw conclusions for policy.
    Keywords: refugee integration, immigration policies, labor supply, employment, language
    JEL: J22 J24 J61
    Date: 2022–08
  4. By: Antonio P. Ramos; Simeon Nichter; Leiwen Gao; Gustavo J. Bobonis
    Abstract: Although various studies suggest that corruption affects public health systems, the literature lacks causal evidence about whether anti-corruption interventions can improve health outcomes. The present article provides novel evidence that one such intervention — anti-corruption audits — improved early-life mortality in Brazil. The Brazilian government conducted audits in 1,949 randomly selected municipalities between 2003 and 2015. To identify the causal effect of anti-corruption audits on early-life mortality, we analyze official data on health outcomes from individual-level vital statistics before and after the intervention. A randomly audited municipality is estimated to experience 0.48 fewer child deaths (95% CI: -0.81, -0.15) and 0.34 fewer infant deaths (-0.61, -0.07) per year, relative to never experiencing an audit. The audit program is estimated to have prevented the deaths of 7,014 (2,216, 11,813) children, including 5,028 (891, 9,165) infants. The observed mortality in audited municipalities is approximately 94 percent of the child deaths, and 95 percent of the infant deaths, that would have occurred in the absence of the intervention. Early-life mortality fell especially sharply for nonwhite Brazilians, who face significant health disparities. Effects are greater when examining deaths from preventable causes, and show temporal persistence with large effects even a decade after audits. In addition, the intervention led to a substantial increase in women receiving recommended levels of prenatal care; this effect is likewise concentrated among nonwhite Brazilians. This causal evidence suggests that government anti-corruption interventions have the potential to improve health outcomes, a finding that deserves investigation in other countries.
    Keywords: Corruption; Program Evaluation; Child Health; Infant Mortality; Child Mortality
    JEL: O11 O54 I15 P16
    Date: 2022–09–04

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