nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2022‒09‒12
five papers chosen by
Héctor Pifarré i Arolas
University of Wisconsin

  1. Covering Undocumented Immigrants: The Effects of a Large-Scale Prenatal Care Intervention By Sarah Miller; Laura Wherry
  2. Funding the future: The impact of population ageing on revenues across levels of government By Sean Dougherty; Pietrangelo de Biase; Luca Lorenzoni
  3. When the Kids Grow Up: Women's Employment and Earnings across the Family Cycle By Claudia Goldin; Sari Pekkala Kerr; Claudia Olivetti
  4. Family Bargaining and the Gender Gap in Informal Care By Chiara Canta; Helmuth Cremer
  5. Estimating Intergenerational and Assortative Processes in Extended Family Data By Collado, Dolores; Ortuño-Ortín, Ignacio; Stuhler, Jan

  1. By: Sarah Miller; Laura Wherry
    Abstract: Undocumented immigrants are ineligible for public insurance coverage for prenatal care in most states, despite their children representing a large fraction of births and having U.S. citizenship. In this paper, we examine a policy that expanded Medicaid pregnancy coverage to undocumented immigrants. Using a novel dataset that links California birth records to Census surveys, we identify siblings born to immigrant mothers before and after the policy. Implementing a mothers' fixed effects design, we find that the policy increased coverage for and use of prenatal care among pregnant immigrant women, and increased average gestation length and birth weight among their children.
    JEL: H75 I13 I18
    Date: 2022–07
  2. By: Sean Dougherty; Pietrangelo de Biase; Luca Lorenzoni
    Abstract: Government revenues may be affected by economic growth and changes in demographics over time. The effect of economic growth can be captured by long-run buoyancy – responsiveness of government revenues to GDP growth – while the demographic effect can be captured by changes in labour income, asset income and consumption patterns over the life cycle, as well as population growth. This paper attempts to quantify the effect of population ageing on OECD tax revenues across different levels of government, by estimating error correction models of revenue buoyancies over the 1990 to 2018 period, by type of revenue, country and level of government. Multiple scenarios are used for the projections to 2040, which are combined with scenarios for the evolution of revenue bases using newly harmonized EU and UN National Transfer Accounts data as well as OECD Population Projections.
    Keywords: demographics, fiscal federalism, intergovernmental relations, revenue buoyancy, tax policy
    JEL: H20 H71 J11
    Date: 2022–08–30
  3. By: Claudia Goldin; Sari Pekkala Kerr; Claudia Olivetti
    Abstract: Women earn less than men, and that is especially true of mothers relative to fathers. Much of the widening occurs after family formation when mothers reduce their hours of work. But what happens when the kids grow up? To answer that question, we estimate three earning gaps: the “motherhood penalty,” the “price of being female,” and the “fatherhood premium.” When added together these three produce the “parental gender gap,” defined as the difference in income between mothers and fathers. We estimate earnings gaps for two education groups (college graduates and high school graduates who did not complete college) using longitudinal data from the NLSY79 that tracks respondents from their twenties to their fifties. As the children grow up and as women work more hours, the motherhood penalty is greatly reduced, especially for the less-educated group. But fathers manage to expand their relative gains, particularly among college graduates. The parental gender gap in earnings remains substantial for both education groups.
    JEL: J01 J16 J31
    Date: 2022–08
  4. By: Chiara Canta; Helmuth Cremer
    Abstract: We study the optimal long-term care policy when informal care can be provided by children in exchange for monetary transfers by their elderly parents. We consider a bargaining model with single-child families. Daughters have a lower labor market wage and a lower bargaining power within the family with respect to sons. Consequently, they provide more informal care and have lower welfare in the laissez-faire (although not necessarily lower transfers). The first best involves redistribution from families with sons to families with daughters and can be implemented by a gender-specific schedule of public LTC benefits and transfers to working children. If the policy is restricted to be gender neutral, we find that the informal care provided by daughters should be distorted up to enhance redistribution from families with sons to families with daughters. Transfers within the family should be distorted in both types of families.
    Keywords: long-term care, informal care, strategic bequests, family bargaining, gender-neutrality
    JEL: D13 H23 H31 I19
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Collado, Dolores (Universidad de Alicante); Ortuño-Ortín, Ignacio (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid); Stuhler, Jan (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid)
    Abstract: We quantify intergenerational and assortative processes by comparing different degrees of kinship within the same generation. This “horizontal” approach yields more, and more distant kinship moments than traditional methods, which allows us to account for the transmission of latent advantages in a detailed intergenerational model. Using Swedish registers, we find strong persistence in the latent determinants of status, and a striking degree of sorting – to explain the similarity of distant kins, assortative matching must be much stronger than previously thought. Latent genetic influences explain little of the variance in educational attainment, and sorting occurs primarily in non-genetic factors.
    Keywords: intergenerational transmission, multigenerational transmission, assortative mating, extended kins
    JEL: J62
    Date: 2022–07

This nep-dem issue is ©2022 by Héctor Pifarré i Arolas. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.