nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2022‒08‒29
four papers chosen by
Héctor Pifarré i Arolas
University of Wisconsin

  1. Economic vs. Epidemiological Approaches to Measuring the Human Capital Impacts of Infectious Disease Elimination By Chuard, Caroline; Schwandt, Hannes; Becker, Alex; Haraguchi, Masahiko
  2. Effects of Extending Paid Parental Leave On Children's Socio-Emotional Skills and Well-Being in Adolescence By Houmark, Mikkel Aagaard; Jørgensen, Cecilie Marie Løchte; Kristiansen, Ida Lykke; Gensowski, Miriam
  3. Public Health Policy at Scale: Impact of a Government-Sponsored Information Campaign on Infant Mortality in Denmark By Altindag, Onur; Greve, Jane; Tekin, Erdal
  4. The lock-in effect of marriage: Work incentives after saying, "Yes, I do." By Christl, Michael; De Poli, Silvia; Ivaškaitė-Tamošiūnė, Viginta

  1. By: Chuard, Caroline (University of St. Gallen); Schwandt, Hannes (Northwestern University); Becker, Alex (Stanford GSB); Haraguchi, Masahiko
    Abstract: A rich economic literature has examined the human capital impacts of disease-eliminating health interventions, such as the rollout of new vaccines. This literature is based on reduced-form approaches which exploit proxies for disease burden, such as mortality, instead of actual infection counts, which are difficult to measure. We develop an epidemiological dynamic accounting model based on the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) framework to derive precise measles infection shares across U.S. cohorts born around the introduction of the measles vaccine. Measles is highly infectious and fully immunizing which makes the disease an ideal candidate for epidemiological modeling. Our epidemiological model is strongly predictive of future measles outbreaks but the derived measles infection shares are not systematically related to cohorts' later educational, economic, or health outcomes. The reduced-form approach, on the other hand, shows that these long-term outcomes strongly improved among vaccinated cohorts in states with high pre-vaccine measles mortality. Our results suggest that differences in disease severity are more relevant for long-term human capital impacts than raw differences in actual infection rates, supporting the reduced-form approach used in the economic literature.
    Keywords: infectious disease, human capital, epidemiological modeling, SIR
    JEL: I
    Date: 2022–07
  2. By: Houmark, Mikkel Aagaard (Aarhus University); Jørgensen, Cecilie Marie Løchte (Aarhus University); Kristiansen, Ida Lykke (University of Copenhagen); Gensowski, Miriam (Rockwool Foundation Research Unit)
    Abstract: We study how children's socio-emotional skills and well-being in adolescence are affected by an increase in the duration of parental care during infancy. Exploiting a Danish reform that extended paid parental leave in 2002 and effectively delayed children's entry into formal out-of-home care, we show that longer leave increases adolescent well-being, conscientiousness and emotional stability, and reduces school absenteeism. The effects are strongest for children of mothers who would have taken short leave in absence of the reform. This highlights how time spent with a parent is particularly productive during very early childhood.
    Keywords: parental leave, early childhood, skill formation, parental investments, socio-emotional skills, personality, well-being, adolescence
    JEL: J13 J18 J24 I31
    Date: 2022–07
  3. By: Altindag, Onur (Bentley University); Greve, Jane (VIVE - The Danish Centre for Social Science Research); Tekin, Erdal (American University)
    Abstract: We evaluate the impact of a nationwide public health intervention on deaths from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), using population data from Denmark in a regression discontinuity research design. The information campaign–implemented primarily through a universal nurse home visiting program–reduced infant mortality by 17.2 percent and saved between 11.6-13.5 lives over 10,000 births. The estimated effect sizes are 11-14 times larger among low birthweight and preterm infants relative to the overall population. Improvement in infant mortality is concentrated among those with low socio-economic status and with limited access to health information, thereby reducing health inequities at birth.
    Keywords: SIDS, information campaign, infant mortality, Denmark
    JEL: I12 I24 I18
    Date: 2022–06
  4. By: Christl, Michael; De Poli, Silvia; Ivaškaitė-Tamošiūnė, Viginta
    Abstract: In this paper, we use EUROMOD, the tax-benefit microsimulation model of the European Union, to investigate the impact of marriage-related tax-benefit instruments on the labour supply of married couples. For each married partner, we estimate their individual marginal effective tax rate and net replacement rate before and after marriage. We show that the marriage bonus, which is economically significant in eight European countries, decreases the work incentives for women and, particularly, on the intensive margin. In contrast, the incentives on the intensive margin increase for men once they are married, pointing to the marriage-biased and gender-biased taxbenefit structures in the analysed countries. Our results suggest that marriage bonuses contribute to a lock-in effect, where second earners, typically women, are incentivised to work less, with negative economic consequences.
    Keywords: marriage,cohabitation,marriage bonus,work incentives,gender,tax-benefit system,labour supply,Europe
    JEL: H31 J12 J22
    Date: 2022

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