nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2022‒05‒02
four papers chosen by
Héctor Pifarré i Arolas
Universitat Pompeu Fabra

  1. Marriage as insurance: job protection and job insecurity in France By Clark, Andrew E.; D'Ambrosio, Conchita; Lepinteur, Anthony
  2. Maternal Displacements during Pregnancy and the Health of Newborns By Cellini, Stefano; Menezes, Livia; Koppensteiner, Martin Foureaux
  3. Women in European Academia before 1800 - Religion, Marriage, and Human Capital By David de la Croix; Mara Vitale
  4. Population aging and bank risk-taking By Doerr, Sebastian; Kabas, Gazi; Ongena, Steven

  1. By: Clark, Andrew E.; D'Ambrosio, Conchita; Lepinteur, Anthony
    Abstract: Job insecurity is one of the risks that workers face on the labour market. As with any risk, individuals can choose to insure against it. We here consider marriage as a way of insuring against labour-market risk. The 1999 rise in the French Delalande tax, paid by large private firms when they laid off workers aged 50 or over, led to an exogenous rise in job insecurity for the uncovered (younger workers) in the affected firms. A difference-in-differences analysis using French panel data reveals that this greater job insecurity for the under-50s led to a significant rise in their probability of marriage, and especially when the partner had greater job security, consistent with marriage providing insurance against labour-market risk.
    Keywords: marriage; insurance; employment protection; perceived job security; difference-in-differences
    JEL: I38 J13 J18
    Date: 2021–06–30
  2. By: Cellini, Stefano (University of Surrey); Menezes, Livia (University of Birmingham); Koppensteiner, Martin Foureaux (University of Surrey)
    Abstract: In this paper, we estimate the effect of maternal displacements during pregnancy on birth outcomes by leveraging population-level administrative data from Brazil on formal employment linked to birth records. We find that involuntary job separation of pregnant single mothers leads to a decrease in birth weight (BW) by around 28 grams (-1% ca.) and an increase in the incidence of low BW by 10.5%. In contrast, we find a significant positive effect on the mean BW and a decrease in the incidence of low BW for mothers in a marriage or stable union. We document more pronounced negative effects for single mothers with lower earnings and no effect for mothers in the highest income quartile, suggesting a mitigating role of self-insurance from savings. Exploiting variation from unemployment benefits eligibility, we also provide evidence on the mitigating role of formal unemployment insurance using a Regression Discontinuity design exploiting the cutoff from the unemployment insurance eligibility rule.
    Keywords: dismissals, birth outcomes, informal insurance, unemployment insurance
    JEL: D14 I10 J65
    Date: 2022–03
  3. By: David de la Croix (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES)); Mara Vitale (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES))
    Abstract: We document the participation of women in European academia from the first universities to the eve of the Industrial Revolution. 108 women taught at universities or were members of academies of arts and sciences. Most of them were active in Catholic southern Europe - an unexpected result. We conjecture that Protestantism left less room for women at the top of the distribution of human capital to exercise their talent. The percentage of ever-married female scholars is 79%, but a large fraction of them remained childless. We measure the quality of women in academia through their publications. Comparing them to 52,000 male scholars, we find that they were on average better, suggesting some form of discrimination.
    Keywords: University, Academy, Protestantism, Publications, Gender
    JEL: N33 Z12 I23 J16
    Date: 2022–04–06
  4. By: Doerr, Sebastian; Kabas, Gazi; Ongena, Steven
    Abstract: Does population aging affect bank lending? To answer this question we exploit geographic variation in population aging across U.S. counties to provide the first evidence on its impact on bank risk-taking. We find that banks more exposed to aging counties experience deposit inflows due to seniors' higher savings rate. They consequently extend more credit, but relax lending standards: Loan-to-income ratios increase and application rejection rates decline. Exposed banks also see a sharper rise in nonperforming loans during downturns, suggesting that population aging may lead to financial instability. These results are in line with an increase in savings and a decline in investment opportunities induced by population aging.
    Keywords: Risk-taking, financial stability, low interest rates, population aging, demographics
    JEL: E51 G21
    Date: 2022

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