nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2022‒03‒21
six papers chosen by
Héctor Pifarré i Arolas
Universitat Pompeu Fabra

  1. Do Family Policies Reduce Gender Inequality? Evidence from 60 Years of Policy Experimentation By Henrik Kleven; Camille Landais; Johanna Posch; Andreas Steinhauer; Josef Zweimüller
  2. Children and the US Social Safety Net: Balancing Disincentives for Adults and Benefits for Children By Anna Aizer; Hilary W. Hoynes; Adriana Lleras-Muney
  3. Berkeley Unified Numident Mortality Database: Public Administrative Records for Individual-Level Mortality Research By Breen, Casey; Goldstein, Joshua R.
  4. The Shadow of the Neolithic Revolution on Life Expectancy: A Double-Edged Sword By Oded Galor; Omer Moav; Ömer Özak
  5. Networks in Population Economics: production and collaborations By Molina, José Alberto; Iñíguez, David; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Tarancón, Alfonso
  6. Indirect estimation of the timing of first union dissolution with incomplete marriage histories By Benson John; Natalie Nitsche

  1. By: Henrik Kleven (Princeton University); Camille Landais (London School of Economics); Johanna Posch (Analysis Group); Andreas Steinhauer (University of Edinburgh); Josef Zweimüller (University of Zurich)
    Abstract: Do family policies reduce gender inequality in the labor market? We contribute to this debate by investigating the joint impact of parental leave and child care, using administrative data covering the labor market and birth histories of Austrian workers over more than half a century. We start by quasi-experimentally identifying the causal effects of all family policy reforms since the 1950s on the full dynamics of male and female earnings. We then map these causal estimates into a decomposition framework building on Kleven, Landais and Søgaard (2019) to compute counterfactual gender inequality series. Our results show that the enormous expansions of parental leave and child care subsidies have had virtually no impact on gender convergence.
    Keywords: Family, Gender Inequality, Austria
    JEL: J13
    Date: 2021–01
  2. By: Anna Aizer; Hilary W. Hoynes; Adriana Lleras-Muney
    Abstract: Economic research on the safety net has evolved significantly over time, moving away from a near exclusive focus on the negative incentive effects of means-tested assistance on employment, earnings, marriage and fertility to include examination of the potential positive benefits of such programs to children. Initially, this research on benefits to children focused on short run impacts, but as we accumulated knowledge about skill production and better data became available, the research evolved further to include important long run economic outcomes such as employment, earnings and mortality. Once the positive long-run benefits to children are considered, many safety net programs are cost-effective. However, the current government practice of limiting the time horizon for cost-benefit calculations of major policy initiatives reduces the influence of the most current economic research on the long run benefits. We conclude with a discussion of why the rate of child poverty in the US is still higher than most OECD countries and how research on children and the safety net can better inform policy-making going forward.
    JEL: I3 I32 I38 J12 J13 J24
    Date: 2022–02
  3. By: Breen, Casey; Goldstein, Joshua R.
    Abstract: While much progress has been made in understanding the demographic determinants of mortality in the United States using individual survey data and aggregate tabulations, the lack of population-level register data is a barrier to further advances in mortality research. With the release of Social Security application (SS-5), claim, and death records, the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) has created a new administrative data resource for researchers studying mortality. We introduce the Berkeley Unified Numident Mortality Database (BUNMD), a cleaned and harmonized version of these records. This publicly available dataset provides researchers access to over 49 million individual-level mortality records with demographic covariates and fine geographic detail, allowing for high-resolution mortality research.
    Date: 2022–02–05
  4. By: Oded Galor (Brown University); Omer Moav (University of Warwick); Ömer Özak (Southern Methodist University)
    Abstract: This research explores the persistent effect of the Neolithic Revolution on the evolution of life expectancy in the course of human history. It advances the hypothesis and establishes empirically that the onset of the Neolithic Revolution and the associated rise in infectious diseases triggered a process of adaptation reducing mortality from infectious diseases while increasing the propensity for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Exploiting an exogenous source of variation in the timing of the Neolithic Revolution across French regions, the analysis establishes the presence of these conflicting forces - the beneficial effects on life expectancy before the second epidemiological transition and their adverse effects thereafter.
    Keywords: Life Expectancy, Health, Mortality, Neolithic Revolution, Epidemiological Transition, Infectious Disease, Auto-immune Disease, Diabetes, Crohn's Disease, HIV, COVID-19
    JEL: I10 I15 J10 N00 N30 O10 O33 Z10
    Date: 2022–03
  5. By: Molina, José Alberto; Iñíguez, David; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Tarancón, Alfonso
    Abstract: Population Economics (PopEc) covers a number of topics in Economics, as well as in Demography, Labor Studies, Sociology, etc. For example, the economic determinants of population change and demographic behavior covers topics such as household formation, marriage and divorce, fertility, gender, child bearing, schooling, access to labor markets, migration, well-being, and ageing and mortality, among others. In this paper, we analyze the production and networks of a total of 6,472 authors who have published 5,070 papers in Population Journals (indexed in SSCI of WOS) between January 1969 and January 2021 (Journal of Population Economics, Journal of Human Resources, Feminist Economics, the Review of Economics of the Household, the Journal of Demographic Economics, Demography, Population and Development Review, and the European Journal of Population). Using the Impact Factor (IF) of these journals corresponding to the year of publication, our results first identify the academic leaders among those authors, as well as other results in terms of communities. Results reveal that the largest community is led by the sociologist Trude Lappegard, with the community led by the economist Hans-Peter Kohler as a close second. The latter community includes the most prolific author, the economist Samuel H. Preston. Additionally, we note that collaborations among these authors are very rare, with only their neighborhoods collaborating.
    Keywords: Population Economists,Impact factor,Leaders and co-authorship,Research production,Complex networks
    JEL: A11 C45
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Benson John (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Natalie Nitsche (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)
    Abstract: Lack of nationally representative data with detailed marriage histories in developing countries impedes comprehensive understanding of essential aspects of union dissolution in these countries – for example, the timing of first union dissolution. This research note proposes a method, denoted as 'Indirect Life Table of first Union Dissolution' (ILTUD), for estimating quantum adjusted measures of the timing of first union dissolution from incomplete marriage histories. ILTUD estimates a survival function of first union from a simple tabulation of ever-married women by duration since first union, classified by union dissolution status (intact vs dissolved first union). It then uses the relationships between life table functions to generate the distribution of marriages ending each year (θ(t)) for a given marriage cohort. Using the distribution of θ(t), ILTUD generates quantum adjusted first union survival rates from which the percentiles of first union dissolution are calculated. ILTUD estimates are consistent with estimates produced using traditional statistical methods such as the Kaplan Meier estimator. In addition, ILTUD is simple to implement and has simple data requirements – available in most nationally representative surveys, e.g. the Demographic Health Surveys. Thus, ILTUD presents an opportunity for broadening our understanding of union dissolution dynamics in developing countries.
    Keywords: life tables, marriage duration
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2022

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