nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2022‒01‒31
four papers chosen by
Héctor Pifarré i Arolas
Universitat Pompeu Fabra

  1. US Presidential Party Switches Are Mirrored in Global Maternal Mortality By Bhalotra, Sonia R.; Clarke, Damian; Mühlrad, Hanna; Fernandez Sierra, Manuel
  2. The Marginal Cost of Mortality Risk Reduction: Evidence from Housing Markets By Kelly Bishop; Nicolai V. Kuminoff; Sophie Mathes; Alvin Murphy
  3. Gender Norms and the Motherhood Employment Gap By Simone Moriconi; Núria Rodriguez-Planas
  4. Testing for Ethnic Discrimination in Outpatient Health Care: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Germany By Martin Halla; Christopher Kah; Rupert Sausgruber

  1. By: Bhalotra, Sonia R. (University of Warwick); Clarke, Damian (University of Chile); Mühlrad, Hanna (IFN - Research Institute of Industrial Economics); Fernandez Sierra, Manuel (Universidad de los Andes)
    Abstract: We provide estimates of impacts on maternal mortality of swings in US aid for family planning and maternal health driven by switches in implementation of the Global Gag Rule (GGR) with US Presidential Party. The GGR is a pro-life policy that prohibits aid to overseas non-governmental organisations (NGOs) if they offer abortion-related information or services (1). Since first implemented by President Reagan in 1984, it has been enacted under every Republican and revoked under every Democrat. It was tightened under President Trump and will very likely be rescinded under President Biden on January 21, 2021. Using data for 1985-2019, we demonstrate that aid for family planning has been 48% higher under Democratic presidential regimes. We estimate that a switch from Democratic to Republican party, for a country with above-median reliance on US family planning aid, is associated with an additional 0.6 deaths per 1,000 women, an increase of 8%. This erodes a fifth of the average worldwide decline in maternal mortality achieved since 1990.
    Keywords: US Presidential Party, overseas aid, maternal mortality, global gag rule, abortion
    JEL: I18 J13
    Date: 2021–12
  2. By: Kelly Bishop; Nicolai V. Kuminoff; Sophie Mathes; Alvin Murphy
    Abstract: We provide the first evidence that spatial variation in all-cause mortality risk is capitalized into US housing prices. Using a hedonic framework, we recover the annual implicit cost of a 0.1 percentage-point reduction in mortality risk among older Americans and find that this figure is both relatively low and decreasing in age, from $1,346 for a 67 year old to $246 for an 87 year old. These estimates are one-fifth of the size of comparable estimates found in the labor market, suggesting that the housing market provides an alternative, substantially cheaper channel to reducing mortality risk.
    JEL: H0 I0 Q0 R0
    Date: 2021–12
  3. By: Simone Moriconi; Núria Rodriguez-Planas
    Abstract: Using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, we study the relevance of gender norms in accounting for the motherhood employment gap across 186 European NUTS2 regions (over 29 countries) for the 2002-2016 period. The gender norm variable is taken from a question on whether “men should have more right to a job than women when jobs are scarce” and represents the average extent of disagreement (on a scale 1 to 5) of women belonging to the “grandmothers” cohort. We address the potential endogeneity of our gender norms measure with an index of the degree of reproductive health liberalization when grandmothers were 20 years old. We also account for the endogeneity of motherhood with the level of reproductive health liberalization when mothers were 20 years old. We find a robust positive association between progressive beliefs among the grandmothers’ cohort and mothers’ likelihood to work while having a small child (0 to 5 years old) relative to similar women without children. No similar association is found among men. Our analysis underscores the role of gender norms and maternal employment, suggesting that non-traditional gender norms mediate on the employment gender gap mainly via motherhood.
    Keywords: gender norms, motherhood employment gap, instrumenting for motherhood
    JEL: J16 J22
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Martin Halla (Johannes Kepler University Linz); Christopher Kah (Mercedes-Benz AG); Rupert Sausgruber (Department of Economics, Vienna University of Economics and Business)
    Abstract: To test for ethnic discrimination in access to outpatient health care services, we carry out an email-correspondence study in Germany. We approach 3,224 physician offices in the 79 largest cities in Germany with fictitious appointment requests and randomized patients’ characteristics. We find that patients’ ethnicity, as signaled by distinct Turkish versus German names, does not affect whether they receive an appointment or wait time. In contrast, patients with private insurance are 31 percent more likely to receive an appointment. Holding a private insurance also increases the likelihood of receiving a response and reduces the wait time. This suggests that physicians use leeway to prioritize privately insured patients to enhance their earnings, but they do not discriminate persons of Turkish origin based on taste. Still, their behavior creates means-based barriers for economically disadvantaged groups.
    Keywords: Discrimination, immigrants, ethnicity, health care markets, health insurance, inequality, correspondence experiment, field experiment
    JEL: I11 J15 I14 I18 H51 C93
    Date: 2021–12

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