nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2021‒07‒19
two papers chosen by
Héctor Pifarré i Arolas
Universitat Pompeu Fabra

  1. Male Fertility: Facts, Distribution and Drivers of Inequality By Bratsberg, Bernt; Kotsadam, Andreas; Walther, Selma
  2. Behind the Child Penalty: Understanding What Contributes to the Labour Market Costs of Motherhood By Alessandra Casarico; Salvatore Lattanzio

  1. By: Bratsberg, Bernt (Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research); Kotsadam, Andreas (Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research); Walther, Selma
    Abstract: We document new facts on the distribution of male fertility and its relationship with men's labor market outcomes. Using Norwegian registry data on all births since 1967, we show that rates of male childlessness in recent cohorts are 72% among the lowest five percent of earners but only 11% among the highest earners, and that this gap widened by almost 20 percentage points over the last thirty cohort years. There has been a compression in the fertility distribution, with a substantial share of men being "left behind" and fewer men experiencing a larger share of the population's new births. We use firm bankruptcies as a source of variation in job loss and earnings to provide robust evidence that men experiencing negative labor market shocks are less likely to experience the birth of a child, transition out of childlessness, and be partnered, and that these effects are persistent up to 15 years after the event. We conclude by documenting that men's fertility penalty to job loss has increased markedly over the last three decades.
    Keywords: male fertility, unemployment, inequality
    JEL: J12 J13
    Date: 2021–06
  2. By: Alessandra Casarico; Salvatore Lattanzio
    Abstract: We study the short- and long-run impact of motherhood on labour market outcomes and explore the individual and firm-level factors that influence it. Using matched employer-employee data for Italy over 1985-2018, through an event study methodology around childbirth, we show that the long-run child penalty in annual earnings is 57 log points and it largely depends on the change in labour supply along the intensive margin. The birth of a child increases the probability of transition to non-employment, reduces the likelihood of having executive roles and increases that of working in firms with lower productivity, sales, capital and wages, providing evidence of sorting into worse firms after childbirth. In the heterogeneity analysis, we find that the child penalty is higher for young, low-wage mothers and those taking longer leaves. It is larger in firms with less generous pay, worse peers, in more gender-conservative regions and where childcare services are scarcer.
    Keywords: child penalty, motherhood, labour-supply, heterogeneous effects, matched employer-employee data
    JEL: J13 J16 J31
    Date: 2021

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