nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2021‒05‒24
five papers chosen by
Héctor Pifarré i Arolas
Universitat Pompeu Fabra

  1. Do Family Policies Reduce Gender Inequality? Evidence from 60 Years of Policy Experimentation By Kleven, Henrik; Landais, Camille; Posch, Johanna; Steinhauer, Andreas; Zweimüller, Josef
  2. Work, care and gender during the Covid-19 crisis By Hupkau, Claudia; Petrongolo, Barbara
  3. Who cares : Deciphering China’s female employment paradox By Yu, Haiyue; Cao, Jin; Kang, Shulong
  4. Immigrant Distribution in the United States during the Age of Mass Migration By Ariell Zimran
  5. Historical Data: Where to Find Them, How to Use Them By Giuliano, Paola; Matranga, Andrea

  1. By: Kleven, Henrik; Landais, Camille; Posch, Johanna; Steinhauer, Andreas; Zweimüller, Josef
    Abstract: Do family policies reduce gender inequality in the labor market? We contribute to this debate by investigating the joint impact of parental leave and child care, using administrative data covering the labor market and birth histories of Austrian workers over more than half a century. We start by quasi-experimentally identifying the causal effects of all family policy reforms since the 1950s on the full dynamics of male and female earnings. We then map these causal estimates into a decomposition framework a la Kleven, Landais and Søgaard (2019) to compute counterfactual gender gaps. Our results show that the enormous expansions of parental leave and child care subsidies have had virtually no impact on gender convergence.
    Date: 2020–11
  2. By: Hupkau, Claudia; Petrongolo, Barbara
    Abstract: We explore impacts of the pandemic crisis and associated restrictions to economic activity on paid and unpaid work for men and women in the UK. Using data from the Covid-19 supplement of Understanding Society, we find evidence that labour market outcomes of men and women were roughly equally affected at the extensive margin, as measured by the incidence of job loss or furloughing, but if anything women suffered smaller losses at the intensive margin, experiencing slightly smaller changes in hours and earnings. Within the household, women provided on average a larger share of increased childcare needs, but in an important share of households fathers became the primary childcare providers. These distributional consequences of the pandemic may be important to understand its inequality legacy over the longer term.
    Keywords: COVID-19; gender gaps; Home Production
    JEL: J13 J16 J22 J31
    Date: 2020–10
  3. By: Yu, Haiyue; Cao, Jin; Kang, Shulong
    Abstract: Female post-childbirth labor market participation and labor intensity are extraordinarily high in China, given that public childcare subsidies are limited and supportive policies for childbearing female employees are largely absent. Establishing a panel dataset that tracks female employment and childbirth, we find that such a paradox is well-explained by the intra-family childcare support provided by grandparents. Correcting the selection bias that stems from women’s fertility choices using the propensity score matching difference-in-difference model, we find that women without grandparental support suffer a substantial drop in post-childbirth employment, while women with grandparental support even experience a rise in employment after childbirth. It takes women without grandparental support twice as long to recover their employment after childbirth. Finally, we find that childbirth does not decrease women's labor intensity due to a lack of labor market flexibility, and that women face a stay-or-quit dilemma when grandparental childcare support is absent.
    JEL: C24 J13 J22
    Date: 2021–05–19
  4. By: Ariell Zimran
    Abstract: Immigrant distribution--the geographic dispersion of immigrants in the destination country--was a major issue in the United States in the late Age of Mass Migration. Policy debates were influenced by the widely held view that the new immigrants were generally less geographically mobile within the United States and specifically less likely to leave urban areas than were natives and earlier immigrants. I build new linked census datasets to investigate these claims by studying the rates of, selection into, and sorting of internal migration by US immigrants. I find that contemporary claims regarding immigrant distribution were either false, oversimplified, or the product of broader national trends that applied also to natives. Nonetheless, geographic assimilation--convergence in immigrants' and natives' county-of-residence distributions over time in the United States--was almost nonexistent.
    JEL: F22 J11 J15 J61 N31 N32 R23
    Date: 2021–05
  5. By: Giuliano, Paola; Matranga, Andrea
    Abstract: The use of historical data has become a standard tool in economics, serving three main purposes: to examine the influence of the past on current economic outcomes; to use unique natural experiments to test modern economic theories; and to use modern economic theories to refine our understanding of important historical events. In this chapter, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the types of historical data most commonly used in economic research and discuss a variety of issues that they raise, such as the constant change in national and administrative borders; the reshuffling of ethnic groups due to migration, colonialism, natural disasters, and many other forces. We also point out which methodological advances allow economists to overcome or minimize these problems.
    Keywords: censuses; ethnographic data; geographical data; Historical data
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2020–10

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