nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2021‒01‒11
seven papers chosen by
Héctor Pifarré i Arolas
Universitat Pompeu Fabra

  1. The Legacy of the Missing Men: The Long-Run Impact of World War I on Female Labor Force Participation By Gay, Victor
  2. The Effect of Childcare on Parental Earnings Trajectories By Matthias Krapf; Anja Roth; Michaela Slotwinski
  3. Child Penalty in Russia: Evidence from an Event Study By Lebedinski, Lara; Perugini, Cristiano; Vladisavljević, Marko
  4. Macroeconomic Conditions When Young Shape Job Preferences for Life By Maria Cotofan; Lea Cassar; Robert Dur; Stephan Meijer
  5. Urban Mortality and the Repeal of Federal Prohibition By David S. Jacks; Krishna Pendakur; Hitoshi Shigeoka
  6. Later Retirement and the Labor Market Re-Integration of Elderly Unemployed Workers? By René Böheim; Michael Topf
  7. The Safest Time to Fly: Pandemic Response in the Era of Fox News By Ananyev, Maxim; Poyker, Michael; Tian, Yuan

  1. By: Gay, Victor
    Abstract: This article explores the pathways that underlie the diffusion of women’s participation in the labor force across generations. I exploit a severe exogenous shock to the sex ratio, World War I in France, which generated a large inflow of women in the labor force after the war. I show that this shock to female labor transmitted to subsequent generations until today. Three mechanisms of intergenerational transmission account for this result: parental transmission, transmission through marriage, and transmission through local social interactions. Beyond behaviors, the war also permanently altered beliefs toward the role of women in the labor force.
    Keywords: Female labor force participation; World War I; Sex ratio; Intergenerational transmission; Gender norms
    Date: 2021–01–07
  2. By: Matthias Krapf; Anja Roth; Michaela Slotwinski
    Abstract: We study the effect of institutional childcare on child penalties. Using Swiss administrative data, we exploit the staggered opening of childcare facilities across municipalities in the canton of Bern. We find that the presence of childcare facilities in the year of birth of the first child reduces the child penalty. The availability of childcare increases maternal earnings and decreases the compensating increase in fathers’ earnings in households with below median earnings, but not in households with above median earnings. Although childcare affects relative earnings contributions within the household, there is no effect on total household earnings.
    Keywords: child penalty, childcare, parental employment, gender wage gap
    JEL: D10 J00 J13 J16 H31
    Date: 2020
  3. By: Lebedinski, Lara (Institute of Economic Sciences, Belgrade); Perugini, Cristiano (University of Perugia); Vladisavljević, Marko (Institute of Economic Sciences, Belgrade)
    Abstract: Despite years of women's progress toward equality, gender disparities in the labour market persist, and parenthood has been identified as one of its key drivers. In this paper we investigate the child penalty in Russia by using longitudinal data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) and the methodological framework of event studies. Our findings show that five years after child birth women suffer an earnings penalty, while the same effect is not observed for men. The child penalty for women stems from lower employment after birth. In contrast to similar studies on Western European countries and the US, we do not find child penalties in terms of working hours or hourly wage rates. We further find that mothers' employment penalty is strongly driven by household characteristics and by their spouses' beliefs, while their own beliefs and background play no role.
    Keywords: child penalty, Russia, event study, RLMS
    JEL: J16 J13 J31
    Date: 2020–12
  4. By: Maria Cotofan (LSE); Lea Cassar (University of Regensburg); Robert Dur (Erasmus University Rotterdam); Stephan Meijer (Columbia Business School)
    Abstract: Preferences for monetary and non-monetary job attributes are important for understanding workers' motivation and the organization of work. Little is known, however, about how those job preferences are formed. We study how macroeconomic conditions when young shape workers' job preferences for the rest of their life. Using variation in income-per-capita across US regions and over time since the 1920s, we find that job preferences vary in systematic ways with experienced macroeconomic conditions during young adulthood. Recessions create cohorts of workers who give higher priority to income, whereas booms make cohorts care more about job meaning, for the rest of their life.
    Keywords: preferences for job attributes, experience, macroeconomic condition, generational difference
    JEL: M5 D9 E7
    Date: 2021–01–04
  5. By: David S. Jacks; Krishna Pendakur; Hitoshi Shigeoka
    Abstract: Federal prohibition from 1920 to 1933 was one of the most ambitious policy interventions in US history. However, due to the political concessions necessary to bring about repeal, the removal of restrictions on alcohol after 1933 was not uniform. Using new data on city-level variation in alcohol prohibition from 1933 to 1936, we investigate whether the repeal of federal prohibition affected multiple causes of urban (non-infant) mortality. We find that city-level repeal is associated with a 14.7% decrease in homicide rates and a 10.1% decrease in mortality rates associated with other accidents (including accidental poisonings). Thus, the repeal of federal prohibition could have led to an annual reduction of as many as 3,400 urban deaths. Combined with previous results showing large increases in infant mortality, this suggests that nonetheless repeal most likely had negative effects on all-cause mortality and, thereby, public health in the US.
    JEL: H73 I18 J1 N3
    Date: 2020–12
  6. By: René Böheim; Michael Topf
    Abstract: We study the effect of lower unearned income on labor supply. To identify the causal effect of an unexpected reduction in unearned income, we exploit a policy reform that lowered survivor pensions in Austria. Men widowed after the survivor pension reform received an approximately 34% lower survivor pension than men widowed before the reform. We follow the employment history of both groups for 150 months and estimate the reform’s effect on labor supply using a regression discontinuity design. The effect of the lower pension is evident immediately after the death of their spouse, is persistent over time, becomes more pronounced over time, and is robust across model specifications. Our baseline result suggests a 3.5 to 5.4 percentage point higher employment rate for survivors in the low pension regime in the long run. The estimated effect corresponds to a labor supply elasticity at the extensive margin with respect to the changes in total income of about -0.9 to -1.3.
    Keywords: labor supply, unearned income, regression discontinuity design.
    JEL: I38 J22 J48
    Date: 2020–12
  7. By: Ananyev, Maxim; Poyker, Michael; Tian, Yuan
    Abstract: We document a causal effect of conservative Fox News Channel in the United States on physical distancing during COVID-19 pandemic. We measure county-level mobility covering all U.S. states and District of Columbia produced by GPS pings to 15-17 million smartphones and zip-code-level mobility using Facebook location data. Then, using the historical position of Fox News Channel in the cable lineup as the source of exogenous variation, we show that increased exposure to Fox News led to a smaller reduction in distance traveled and smaller increase in the probability to stay home after the national emergency declaration in the United States. Our results show that slanted media can have a harmful effect on containment efforts during a pandemic by affecting people's behaviour.
    Keywords: Mobility,Media Bias,Fox News,COVID-19
    JEL: D1 D7 I31 Z13
    Date: 2020

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