nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2020‒05‒18
three papers chosen by
Héctor Pifarré i Arolas
Universitat Pompeu Fabra

  1. Does Biology Drive Child Penalties? Evidence from Biological and Adoptive Families By Henrik Kleven; Camille Landais; Jakob Egholt Soegaard
  2. A Natural Experiment on Job Insecurity and Fertility in France By Clark, Andrew E.; Lepinteur, Anthony
  3. The Value of Health Insurance during a Crisis: Effects of Medicaid Implementation on Pandemic Influenza Mortality By Karen Clay; Joshua A. Lewis; Edson R. Severnini; Xiao Wang

  1. By: Henrik Kleven (Princeton University, NBER, CEPR, and CEBI); Camille Landais (London School of Economics and CEPR); Jakob Egholt Soegaard (CEBI, Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: This paper investigates if the impact of children on the labor market trajectories of women relative to men child penalties can be explained by the biological links between mother and child. We estimate child penalties in biological and adoptive families using event studies around the arrival of children and almost forty years of adoption data from Denmark. Long-run child penalties in earnings and its underlying determinants are virtually identical in biological and adoptive families. This implies that biology is not important for child-related gender gaps. Based on additional analyses, we argue that our results speak against the importance of specialization based on comparative advantage more broadly.
    Keywords: Gender Wage Gap, Children, Adoption, Denmark
    JEL: D63 J13 J16 J22 J31 J71
    Date: 2020–05–04
  2. By: Clark, Andrew E. (Paris School of Economics); Lepinteur, Anthony (University of Luxembourg)
    Abstract: Job insecurity can have wide-ranging consequences outside of the labour market. We here argue that it reduces fertility amongst the employed. The 1999 rise in the French Delalande tax, paid by large private firms when they laid off workers aged over 50, produced an exogenous rise in job insecurity for younger workers in these firms. A difference-in-differences analysis of French ECHP data reveals that this greater job insecurity for these under-50s significantly reduced their probability of having a new child by 3.9 percentage points. Reduced fertility is only found at the intensive margin: job insecurity reduces family size but not the probability of parenthood itself. Our results also suggest negative selection into parenthood, as this fertility effect does not appear for low-income and less-educated workers.
    Keywords: employment protection, layoff tax, perceived job security, difference-in-differences, fertility
    JEL: I38 J13 J18
    Date: 2020–04
  3. By: Karen Clay; Joshua A. Lewis; Edson R. Severnini; Xiao Wang
    Abstract: This paper studies how better access to public health insurance affects infant mortality during pandemics. Our analysis combines cross-state variation in mandated eligibility for Medicaid with two influenza pandemics — the 1957-58 "Asian Flu" pandemic and the 1968-69 "Hong Kong Flu" — that arrived shortly before and after the program's introduction. Exploiting heterogeneity in the underlying severity of these two shocks across counties, we find no relationship between Medicaid eligibility and pandemic infant mortality during the 1957-58 outbreak. After Medicaid implementation, we find that better access to insurance in high-eligibility states substantially reduced infant mortality during the 1968-69 pandemic. The reductions in pandemic infant mortality are too large to be attributable solely to new Medicaid recipients, suggesting that the expansion in health insurance coverage mitigated disease transmission among the broader population.
    JEL: I13 I18 N32 N52
    Date: 2020–05

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