nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2018‒01‒01
seven papers chosen by
Héctor Pifarré i Arolas
Max-Planck-Institut für demografische Forschung

  1. Household Labour Supply and the Marriage Market in the UK, 1991-2008 By Marion Goussé; Nicolas Jacquemet; Jean-Marc Robin
  2. The Parental Gender Earnings Gap in the United States By YoonKyung Chung; Barbara Downs; Danielle H. Sandler; Robert Sienkiewicz
  3. The impact of health on labour supply near retirement By Richard Blundell; Jack Britton; Monica Costa Dias; Eric French
  4. The (Struggle for) Labour Market Integration of Refugees: Evidence from European Countries By Francesco Fasani; Tommaso Frattini; Luigi Minale
  5. Sanctioned to Death? The Impact of Economic Sanctions on Life Expectancy and its Gender Gap By Gutmann, Jerg; Neuenkirch, Matthias; Neumeier, Florian
  6. Global inequality in length of life: 1950–2015 By Vanesa Jordá; Miguel Niño-Zarazúa
  7. Women’s labor force participation in Italy, 1861-2016 By Giulia Mancini

  1. By: Marion Goussé (Département d'Economique, Université Laval - Université Laval); Nicolas Jacquemet (PSE - Paris School of Economics, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Jean-Marc Robin (ECON - Département d'économie - Sciences Po, Department of Economics, University College London - UCL - University College of London [London])
    Abstract: We document changes in labour supply, wage and education by gender and marital status using the British Household Panel Survey, 1991-2008, and seek to disentangle the main channels behind these changes. To this end, we use a version of Goussé, Jacquemet, and Robin (2016)'s search-matching model of the marriage market with labour supply, which does not use information on home production time inputs. We derive conditions under which the model is identified. We estimate different parameters for each year. This allows us to quantify how much of the changes in labour supply, wage and education by gender and marital status depends on changes in the preferences for leisure of men and women and how much depends on changes in homophily.
    Keywords: Search-matching, sorting, assortative matching, structural estimation, collective labour supply
    Date: 2017–06–01
  2. By: YoonKyung Chung; Barbara Downs; Danielle H. Sandler; Robert Sienkiewicz
    Abstract: This paper examines the parental gender earnings gap, the within-couple differences in earnings over time, before and after the birth of a child. The presence and timing of children are important components of the gender wage gap, but there is selection in both decisions. We estimate the earnings gap between male and female spouses over time, which allows us to control for this timing choice as well as other shared external earnings shifters, such as the local labor market. We use Social Security Administration Detail Earnings Records (SSA-DER) data linked to the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to examine a panel of earnings from 1978 to 2011 for the individuals in the SIPP sample. Our main results show that the spousal earnings gap doubles between two years before the birth of the first child and the year after that child is born. After the child's first year of life the gap continues to grow for the next five years, but at a much slower rate, then tapers off and even begins to fall once the child reaches school-age.
    Date: 2017–01
  3. By: Richard Blundell (Institute for Fiscal Studies and IFS and UCL); Jack Britton (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Monica Costa Dias (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Institute for Fiscal Studies); Eric French (Institute for Fiscal Studies and IFS and UCL)
    Abstract: Estimates of the effect of health on employment differ signi cantly from study to study due to differences in method, data, institutional background and health measure. We assess the importance of these differences using a unifi ed framework to interpret and contrast estimates of the impact of health on employment based on various measures of health and estimation procedures. This is done for the US and England. We fi nd that subjective and objective health measures, as well as subjective measures instrumented by objective measures produce similar estimates if a sufficiently large number of objective measures is used. Reducing the number of objective measures used compromises their ability to capture work capacity and biases estimates downwards. Failure to account for initial conditions leads to an overstatement of the effect of health on employment. We also find that a carefully constructed single index of subjective health yields estimates that are very similar to those obtained with multiple measures. Overall, declines in health can explain between 3% and 15% of the decline in employment between ages 50 and 70. These effects are larger among high-school dropouts and tend to drop with education; they are also larger in the US than in England. Finally, cognition has little added explanatory power once we also control for health, suggesting that cognition is not a key driver of employment at these ages.
    Keywords: Health, cognition, labor supply, retirement
    JEL: I10 J26 E24
    Date: 2017–08–25
  4. By: Francesco Fasani (QMUL, CReAM, IZA and CEPR); Tommaso Frattini (University of Milan, LdA, CReAM, IZA and CEPR); Luigi Minale (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, CReAM and IZA)
    Abstract: This paper studies the labour market performance of refugees vis-à -vis comparable migrants across several EU countries and over time. We use recently released repeated cross–sectional survey data and find that refugees are 13% less likely to have a job and 32% more likely to be unemployed than migrants with similar characteristics. Their performance is relatively weaker also when analysing participation in the labour market, quality of occupation and income. Between 60 and 80% of the “refugee gap†remains unexplained even when conditioning on unobservable factors by means of a rich set of fixed effects for areas of origin, entry cohorts, destination countries as well as their interactions. These gaps are larger for the areas of origin from which most refugees currently arrive and they persist until about ten years after immigration. We also assess the role played by asylum policies. First, we exploit the differential timing of the enactment of dispersal policies across European countries in a difference–in–differences setup and find that refugee cohorts exposed to these polices have persistently worse labour market outcomes. Second, we document how entry cohorts admitted when refugee status’ recognition rates were relatively high integrate better in the host country labour market.
    Keywords: Asylum seekers; Assimilation; Refugee gap; Asylum policies
    JEL: F22 J61 J15
    Date: 2017–12
  5. By: Gutmann, Jerg; Neuenkirch, Matthias; Neumeier, Florian
    Abstract: In this paper, we empirically analyze the effect of UN and US economic sanctions on life expectancy and its gender gap in target countries. Our sample covers 98 less developed and newly industrialized countries over the period 1977–2012. We employ a matching approach to account for the endogeneity of sanctions. Our results indicate that an average episode of UN sanctions reduces life expectancy by about 1.2–1.4 years. The corresponding decrease of 0.4–0.5 years under an average episode of US sanctions is significantly smaller. These average effects conceal that the damage to life expectancy is accumulating over time; with every additional year under UN (US) sanctions the size of the adverse effect on life expectancy increases by 0.3 (0.2) years. Finally, we find evidence that women are affected more severely by the imposition of sanctions. The fact that sanctions are not “gender-blind” can be interpreted as evidence that sanctions disproportionately affect (the life expectancy of) the more vulnerable members of society.
    Keywords: Gender Gap,Human Development,Life Expectancy,Sanctions,United Nations,United States
    JEL: F51 F52 F53 I15
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Vanesa Jordá; Miguel Niño-Zarazúa
    Abstract: This paper provides a broad picture of national, regional and global trends of inequality in length of life over the period 1950–2015. We use data on life tables from World Population Prospects to develop a comprehensive database of a battery of inequality measures for 201 countries at five-year intervals over the period under analysis. We estimate both absolute and relative inequality measures which have the property of being additively decomposable. This property makes the database remarkably flexible because overall inequality can be computed for any group of countries using only the information included in our database. The decomposition analysis reveals that differences in life expectancy between countries account for a very small portion of the observed changes in global inequality in length of life, evolution of which is large driven by within-country variation. Our estimates indicate that inequality in length of life has decreased sharply since 1950, a reduction that can be largely attributed to the substantial progress made in reducing child mortality worldwide. We also observe a degree of heterogeneity in the distributional patters of inequality in length of life across world regions.
    Date: 2017
  7. By: Giulia Mancini
    Abstract: The economic history of women in Italy is still very much in its infancy. Not only there are few quantitative historical interpretations that explicitly include women, but there is also close to no evidence on many key variables describing women’s evolving economic role, wellbeing, and inequality relative to men throughout the country’s history. This paper takes the first step toward filling this gap: it builds a new time series of female labor force participation for post-Unification Italy, that adjusts census-based estimates using both aggregate and micro-data from alternative sources, including historical household budget surveys. Women’s work before the Second World War was more pervasive than previously thought, and female labor supply has a decidedly asymmetric U-shape throughout Italy’s history. These findings prompt new questions on the consequences of economic development on women’s wellbeing in Italy.
    Keywords: female work, gender, historical household budgets, INEA, Italy, labor force participation, marriage records
    JEL: J16 N22 N34
    Date: 2017–12–20

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