nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2017‒12‒18
six papers chosen by
Héctor Pifarré i Arolas
Max-Planck-Institut für demografische Forschung

  1. Planning Parenthood: The Affordable Care Act Young Adult Provision and Pathways to Fertility By Joelle Abramowitz
  2. Childhood Circumstances and Young Adulthood Outcomes: The Effects of Mothers' Financial Problems By Marta Barazzetta; Andrew E. Clark; Conchita D'Ambrosio
  3. The Impact of Unemployment on Child Maltreatment in the United States By Daniel Brown; Elisabetta De Cao
  4. Grandmothers' Labor Supply By Frimmel, Wolfgang; Halla, Martin; Schmidpeter, Bernhard; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf
  5. How Migration Policies Moderate the Diffusion of Terrorism By Böhmelt, Tobias; Bove, Vincenzo
  6. Health, Retirement and Consumption By Malene Kallestrup-Lamb; John Kennan; Bent Jesper Christensen

  1. By: Joelle Abramowitz
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of the Affordable Care Act young adult provision on fertility and related outcomes. The expected effect of the provision on fertility is not clear ex ante. By expanding insurance coverage to young adults, the provision may affect fertility directly through expanded options for obtaining contraceptives as well as through expanded options for obtaining pregnancy-, birth-, and infant-related care, and these may lead to decreased or increased fertility, respectively. In addition, the provision may also affect fertility indirectly through marriage or labor markets, and the direction and magnitude of these effects is difficult to determine. This paper considers the effect of the provision on fertility as well as the contributing channels by applying difference-in-differences-type methods using the 2008-2010 and 2012-2013 American Community Survey, 2006-2009 and 2012-2013 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention abortion surveillance data, and 2006-2010 and 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth. Results suggest that the provision is associated with decreases in the likelihood of having given birth and abortion rates and an increase in the likelihood of using long-term hormonal contraceptives.
    Keywords: Fertility, Affordable Care Act, Young Adult Provision, Health Insurance
    JEL: I12 I13 I18 J13
    Date: 2017–01
  2. By: Marta Barazzetta ( - Université du Luxembourg); Andrew E. Clark (PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics); Conchita D'Ambrosio ( - Université du Luxembourg)
    Abstract: We here consider the cognitive and non-cognitive consequences on young adults of growing up with a mother who reported experiencing major financial problems. We use data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children to show that early childhood financial problems are associated with worse adolescent cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes, controlling for both income and a set of standard variables. The estimated effect of financial problems is almost always larger in size than that of income. Around one quarter to one half of the effect of financial problems on the non-cognitive outcomes seems to transit through mother’s mental health.
    Keywords: Behaviour,ALSPAC,Education,Income,Poverty,Subjective well-being
    Date: 2017–10
  3. By: Daniel Brown; Elisabetta De Cao
    Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we show that unemployment increases child neglect in the United States during the period from 2004 to 2012. A one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate leads to a 20 percent increase in neglect. We identify this effect by instrumenting for the county-level unemployment rate with a Bartik instrument, which we create as the weighted average of the national-level unemployment rates across each of twenty industries, where the weights are the county-level fraction of the employed working-age population in each industry at the start of the sample period. An important mechanism behind this effect is that parents lack social and private safety nets. The effect on neglect is smaller in states that introduce longer extensions to unemployment benefits, and is greater in counties where an initially larger fraction of children are not covered by health insurance. We find no evidence that the effect is driven by alcohol consumption or divorce.
    Keywords: child abuse and neglect, unemployment rate, recession, safety net, unemployment insurance
    JEL: I10 J12 J13 J65 K42
    Date: 2017–09–25
  4. By: Frimmel, Wolfgang; Halla, Martin; Schmidpeter, Bernhard; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf
    Abstract: The labor supply effects of becoming a grandmother are not well established in the empirical literature. We estimate the effect of becoming a grandmother on the labor supply decision of older workers. Under the assumption that grandmothers cannot predict the exact date of conception of their grandchild, we identify the effect of the first grandchild on employment (extensive margin). Our Timing-of-Events approach shows that having a first grandchild increases the probability of leaving prematurely the labor market. This effect is stronger when informal childcare is more valuable to the mother. To estimate the effect of an additional grandchild (intensive margin), we assume that the incidence of a twin birth among the third generation is not correlated with unobserved determinants of the grandmother's labor supply (first generation). Our respective 2SLS estimation shows a significant effect of further grandchildren. Our results highlight the important influence of the extended family on the decisions of older workers and point to mediating effects of different institutional settings.
    Keywords: Female labor supply; grandchildren; instrumental variables; timing of events
    JEL: J13 J14 J22
    Date: 2017–12
  5. By: Böhmelt, Tobias (University of Essex); Bove, Vincenzo (University of Warwick)
    Abstract: There is an ongoing debate among practitioners and scholars about the security consequences of transnational migration. Yet, existing work has not yet fully taken into account the policy instruments states have at their disposal to mitigate these, and we lack reliable evidence for the effectiveness of such measures. The following research addresses both shortcomings as we analyze whether and to what extent national migration policies affect the diffusion of terrorism via population movements. Spatial analyses report robust support for a moderating influence of states’ policies: while larger migration populations can be a vehicle for the diffusion of terrorism from one state to another, this only applies to target countries with extremely open controls and lax regulations. This research sheds new light on the security implications of population movements, and it crucially adds to our understanding of governments’ instruments for addressing migration challenges as well as their effectiveness.
    Keywords: Terrorism; Diffusion; Immigration; National Migration PoliciesJEL Classification:
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Malene Kallestrup-Lamb (University of Aarhus); John Kennan (University of Wisconsin Madison); Bent Jesper Christensen (Aarhus University)
    Abstract: The paper analyzes consumption decisions of retired workers, using Danish register data. A major puzzle, which motivates much of the analysis below, is that wealth actually increases for a large fraction (roughly half) of the people in our data. One would expect that wealth accumulated before retirement would be used to augment consumption in later life, with the implication that wealth should decline over time. The risk of large out-of-pocket medical expenditures is negligible in Denmark, so although explanations associated with such expenditures might explain similar patterns in U.S. data, these explanations are not plausible for Denmark (and therefore also questionable for the U.S.) Our analysis instead attempts to explain wealth paths using a model that emphasizes health-related fluctuations in the marginal utility of consumption.
    Date: 2017

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