nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2017‒09‒10
six papers chosen by
Michele Battisti
ifo Institut

  1. The Gender Unemployment Gap By Stefania Albanesi; Ayşegül Şahin
  2. The Timing of Teenage Births: Estimating the Effect on High School Graduation and Later Life Outcomes By Danielle H. Sandler; Lisa Schulkind
  3. The Effect of Mothers’ Employment on Youth Gender Role Attitudes: Evidence From Egypt By May Gadallah; Maia Sieverding; Rania Roushdy
  4. Household Labour Supply and the Marriage Market in the UK, 1991-2008 By Marion Goussé; Nicolas Jacquemet; Jean-Marc Robin
  5. The effect of ambient temperature shocks during conception and early pregnancy on later life outcomes By Joshua Wilde; Bénédicte Apouey; Toni Jung
  6. Tipping and the effects of segregation By Böhlmark, Anders; Willén, Alexander

  1. By: Stefania Albanesi; Ayşegül Şahin
    Abstract: The gender unemployment gap, the difference between female and male unemployment rates, was positive until the early 1980s. This gap disappeared after 1983, except during recessions, when men’s unemployment rate has always exceeded women’s. Using a calibrated three-state search model, we show that the convergence in female and male labor force attachment accounts for most of the closing of the gender unemployment gap. Evidence from nineteen OECD countries is consistent with this finding. We show that gender differences in industry composition are the main source of the cyclicality of the unemployment gap.
    JEL: E24 J16 J21
    Date: 2017–08
  2. By: Danielle H. Sandler; Lisa Schulkind
    Abstract: We examine the long-term outcomes for a population of teenage mothers who give birth to their children around the end of their high school year. We compare the mothers whose high school education was interrupted by childbirth, because the child was born before her expected graduation date to mothers who did not experience the same disruption to their education. We find that mothers who give birth during the school year are seven percent less likely to graduate from high school, are less likely to be married, and have more children than their counterparts who gave birth just a few months later. The labor market outcomes for these two sets of teenage mothers are not statistically different, but with a lower likelihood of marriage and more children, the households of the treated mothers are more likely to fall below the poverty threshold. While differences in educational attainment have narrowed over time, the differences in labor market outcomes and family structure have remained stable.
    JEL: J13
    Date: 2016–01
  3. By: May Gadallah (Cairo University); Maia Sieverding; Rania Roushdy
    Abstract: Cross-nationally, having a working mother during childhood is associated with more egalitarian attitudes among both adult men and women. However, no previous studies have explored this relationship in the Middle East and North Africa, where women’s employment rates have remained persistently low. In this paper, we examine the impact of having a working mother during childhood on Egyptian young people’s attitudes towards women’s roles in the public sphere, gender roles in the household, and ideals around number of children and women’s age at marriage that are related to gender roles. In order to address the potential endogeneity of mother’s work and attitudes formation, we use an instrumental variable approach with panel data from the Survey of Young People in Egypt 2009 and 2014 waves. Mother’s employment is instrumented using the governorate-level female labor force participation rate and percentage of women working in the public sector in 2009. We find that having a working mother during childhood led to significantly more egalitarian attitudes towards women’s roles in the public sphere among both young men and women. However, there was no effect on young people’s attitudes towards gender roles in the household. Having a working mother led to lower ideal number of children among sons, but did not have any effect on views of the ideal age of marriage for women among children of either gender. In the Egyptian context, having a working mother during childhood thus appears to led to more egalitarian attitudes around women’s roles outside the household but not necessarily their roles inside the household. This suggests that attitudes around gender roles in the household may be more strongly socially conditioned and thus less affected by individual experience, and is also consistent with the finding from labor market research that women continue to bear the brunt of housework and childcare in Egypt even when they are employed. Thus, while having an employed mother does have some liberalizing effect on individual attitudes, broader change in attitudes around gender roles both inside and outside the home may be needed in order to foster increased female labor force participation.
    Date: 2017–10–08
  4. By: Marion Goussé (Département d'Economique, Université Laval - Université Laval); Nicolas Jacquemet (PSE - Paris School of Economics); Jean-Marc Robin (ECON - Département d'économie - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: We document changes in labour supply, wage and education by gender and marital status using the British Household Panel Survey, 1991-2008, and seek to disentangle the main channels behind these changes. To this end, we use a version of Goussé, Jacquemet, and Robin (2016)'s search-matching model of the marriage market with labour supply, which does not use information on home production time inputs. We derive conditions under which the model is identified. We estimate different parameters for each year. This allows us to quantify how much of the changes in labour supply, wage and education by gender and marital status depends on changes in the preferences for leisure of men and women and how much depends on changes in homophily.
    Keywords: structural estimation, collective labour supply, assortative matching, sorting,Search-matching
    Date: 2017–06–01
  5. By: Joshua Wilde (USF - University of South Florida); Bénédicte Apouey (PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics); Toni Jung (AT&T - AT&T)
    Abstract: A large body of research has recently shown that early life or in utero shocks, especially climatic shocks, may affect long-run human capital outcomes. Most of these effects are assumed to be biological – including poor nutrition during critical windows of fetal development, or through increased maternal stress. However, in addition to these biological effects, climatic conditions at the time of conception may also cause changes in parental behavior, not only affecting the mix of parents who conceive, but also the characteristics of the children once born. This paper explores whether increases in ambient temperature at the time of conception, while in utero, or after birth affect educational and health outcomes as adults. Using Census and Demographic and Health Survey data from sub-Saharan Africa, we show that individuals conceived during high temperatures have higher educational attainment and literacy. In addition, we find evidence of temperature effects at other times in utero, especially during the first trimester. We then explore the biological and behavioral mechanisms through which this effect may occur, including heat-induced changes in sexual behavior, differences in parental characteristics, and intensified fetal selection. We conclude that fetal selection is the most likely mechanism driving our result.
    Keywords: Temperature,Conception,Fetal Origins,Fertility,Human Capital
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Böhlmark, Anders (Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI), Stockholm University, IFAU, CReAM); Willén, Alexander (Department of Policy Analysis and Management, Cornell University, USA)
    Abstract: We examine the effect of ethnic residential segregation on short- and long-term education and labor market outcomes of immigrants and natives. Our identification strategy builds on the one-sided tipping point model, which predicts that neighborhood native population growth drops discontinuously once the immigrant share exceeds a certain threshold. After having identified a statistically and economically significant discontinuity in native population growth at candidate tipping points in the three metropolitan areas of Sweden between 1990 and 2000, we show that these thresholds also are associated with a discontinuous jump in ethnic residential segregation. We exploit these thresholds to estimate the intent-to-treat effect of tipping. We find modest adverse education effects among both immigrants and natives. These effects do not carry over to the labor market.
    Keywords: residential segregation; education; labor market; regression discontinuity
    JEL: J15 J16 R23
    Date: 2017–08–21

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