nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2017‒07‒09
two papers chosen by
Michele Battisti
ifo Institut

  1. The Effect of Antimalarial Campaigns on Child Mortality and Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa By Joshua Wilde; Bénédicte H. Apouey; Gabriel Picone; Joseph Coleman
  2. The Effects of Paternity Leave on Fertility and Labor Market Outcomes By Lídia Farré; Rosa Ferrer

  1. By: Joshua Wilde (Department of Economics, University of South Florida); Bénédicte H. Apouey (Paris School of Economics); Gabriel Picone (Department of Economics, University of South Florida); Joseph Coleman (Department of Economics, University of South Florida)
    Abstract: We examine to what extent recent declines in mortality and fertility in sub-Saharan Africa can be attributed to insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs). Exploiting the rapid increase in ITNs during the mid-2000s, we employ a difference-in-differences estimation strategy to identify the causal effect of ITNs on mortality and fertility. We show that ITNs reduced all-cause child mortality, but surprisingly increased total fertility rates in spite of reduced desire for children and increased contraceptive use. We explain this paradox by showing evidence for an unexpected increase in fecundity and sexual activity due to the better health environment after the ITN distribution.
    Keywords: Malaria, Bed nets, Child mortality, Fertility, Sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: I15 J13 O10
    Date: 2017–06
  2. By: Lídia Farré; Rosa Ferrer
    Abstract: This paper studies the effects of a father quota in the parental leave period on households' labor market and fertility decisions. Identification is based on the 2007 reform of the Spanish family benefit system, which extended the sixteen weeks of paid parental leave by two additional weeks exclusively reserved for fathers and non- transferable to mothers. Using a regression discontinuity design, we show that the reform substantially increased the take-up rate of fathers (by as much as 400%), as well as the re-employment probability of mothers shortly after childbirth (by about 11%). However, it did not affect parents' longer-term leave-taking or employment behavior. We also find that the introduction of the two weeks of paternity leave delayed higher- order births and reduced subsequent fertility among older women (by about 15%). These results suggest a limited scope for the father quota to alter household behaviors beyond the parental leave period and reduce gender inequality at the workplace.
    Keywords: natural experiment, paternity leave, fertility, labor market and gender
    JEL: J48 J13 J16
    Date: 2017–07

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