nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2017‒06‒25
five papers chosen by
Michele Battisti
ifo Institut

  1. Parents' primary and secondary childcare time adjustment to market time: Evidence from Australian mothers and fathers By Huong Dinh; Maria Racionero
  2. The effect of age and gender on labor demand – evidence from a field experiment By Carlsson, Magnus; Eriksson, Stefan
  3. Top Earnings Inequality and the Gender Pay Gap: Canada, Sweden and the United Kingdom By Fortin, Nicole M.; Bell, Brian; Böhm, Michael Johannes
  4. The city as a driver of new mobility patterns, cycling and gender equality: travel behaviour trends in Stockholm 1985-2015 By Bastian , Anne; Börjesson, Maria
  5. Nonmarital and Teen Fertility By Fletcher, Jason M.; Polos, Jessica

  1. By: Huong Dinh; Maria Racionero
    Abstract: Do mothers and fathers differ in the way they trade off childcare time for market time? We examine the effects of increases in own and partner's market time on parents' primary and secondary childcare time. We use time-diary data on couples with children from the 2006 Australian Time Use Survey and employ a system of censored regression equations of the time parents spend in primary childcare, secondary childcare and market work. We find that mothers and fathers adjust their childcare time differently depending on which partner (father or mother) changes market time, which childcare type (primary or secondary) is considered and the age group their youngest child belongs to (less than 5 years or 5-14 years old). Our results suggest that there is a gender difference in the way each member of the couple adjusts primary and secondary childcare time in response to an increase in own or partner’s market time that may need to be accounted for when considering policies to promote female labour participation.
    Keywords: childcare time, market time, gender, time use
    JEL: J13 J22
    Date: 2016–09
  2. By: Carlsson, Magnus (Linnaeus University); Eriksson, Stefan (Department of Economics, Uppsala University)
    Abstract: In most countries, there are systematic age and gender differences in labor market outcomes. Older workers and women often have lower employment rates, and the duration of unemployment increases with age. These patterns may reflect age and gender differences in either labor demand (i.e. discrimination) or labor supply. In this study, we investigate the importance of demand effects by analyzing whether employers use information about a job applicant’s age and gender in their hiring decisions. To do this, we conducted a field experiment, where over 6,000 fictitious resumes with randomly assigned information about age (in the interval 35-70) and gender were sent to employers with a vacancy and the employers’ responses (callbacks) were recorded. We find that the callback rate starts to fall substantially early in the age interval we consider. This decline is steeper for women than for men. These results indicate that age discrimination is a widespread phenomenon affecting workers already in their early 40s in many occupations. Ageism and occupational skill loss due to aging are unlikely explanations of these effects. Instead, our employer survey suggests that employer stereotypes about three worker characteristics – ability to learn new tasks, flexibility/adaptability, and ambition – are important. We find no evidence of gender discrimination against women on average, but the gender effect is heterogeneous across occupations and firms. Women have a higher callback rate in female-dominated occupations and firms, and when the recruiter is a woman. These results suggest that an in-group bias affects hiring patterns, which may reinforce the existing gender segregation in the labor market.
    Keywords: age; gender; discrimination; field experiment; labor market
    JEL: J23 J71
    Date: 2017–06–15
  3. By: Fortin, Nicole M. (University of British Columbia, Vancouver); Bell, Brian (King's College London); Böhm, Michael Johannes (University of Bonn)
    Abstract: This paper explores the consequences of the under-representation of women in top jobs for the overall gender pay gap. Using administrative annual earnings data from Canada, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, it applies the approach used in the analysis of earnings inequality in top incomes, as well as reweighting techniques, to the analysis of the gender pay gap. The analysis is supplemented by classic O-B decompositions of hourly wages using data from the Canadian and U.K. Labour Force Surveys. The paper finds that recent increases in top earnings led to substantial "swimming upstream" effects, therefore accounting for differential progress in the gender pay gap across time periods and a growing share of the gap unexplained by traditional factors.
    Keywords: earnings inequality, top incomes, gender pay gap
    JEL: J15 J16 J70
    Date: 2017–06
  4. By: Bastian , Anne (KTH); Börjesson, Maria (KTH)
    Abstract: We analyse changes in individual travel behaviour in Stockholm County over 30 years, using three large cross-sectional travel survey data sets. We show how travel patterns diverge over time between city, suburban and rural residents. We relate these diverging travel patterns to changes in the labour market, ICT use and the digital/knowledge economy, land-use and transport policy, increased gender equality, and population size, composition and location.
    Keywords: Travel behavior; Land use policy; Urban; Agglomeration; Car use; Bicycling; ICT
    JEL: R40
    Date: 2017–06–20
  5. By: Fletcher, Jason M. (University of Wisconsin-Madison); Polos, Jessica (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
    Abstract: This chapter explores trends, causes and consequences of nonmarital and teen fertility in the United States and in selected European countries. First, we describe some key factors, including changes in economic institutions and family planning technologies, that likely contribute to the large changes in patterns of marriage and fertility observed in developed countries in recent decades. Secondly, we observe that substantial empirical hurdles to credibly estimating the impacts of nonmarital and teen fertility on adults' and children's outcomes remain, though recent evidence suggests more modest impacts than early evidence. Finally, we explore new directions in this research area, arguing that the conventional comparison between nonmarital and marital births should be revised to more adequately incorporate the rapidly growing number of births to cohabiting partners. Additional directions include continuing analysis of the dynamic impacts of the Great Recession and an integration of biological considerations into the economic analysis of fertility.
    Keywords: nonmarital fertility, teen fertility, family economics, contraception, cohabitation, Great Recession, genetics
    JEL: J12 J13
    Date: 2017–06

This nep-dem issue is ©2017 by Michele Battisti. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.