nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2017‒04‒30
five papers chosen by
Michele Battisti
ifo Institut

  1. Gender Differences in Unemployment Dynamics and Initial Wages over the Business Cycle By NAGORE GARCIA Amparo
  2. Double squeeze on educational development: land inequality and ethnic conflict in Southeastern Turkey By Oyvat, Cem; Tekgüç, Hasan
  3. Smoking Ban and Health at Birth By Tamas Hajdu; Gabor Hajdu
  4. Gender Differences in Careers By SATO Kaori; HASHIMOTO Yuki; OWAN Hideo
  5. Modeling Enrollment in and Completion of Vocational Education: The role of cognitive and non-cognitive skills by program type By Leslie S. Stratton; Nabanita Datta Gupta; David Reimer

  1. By: NAGORE GARCIA Amparo
    Abstract: Using administrative data from Spanish Social Security for the period 2002-2013, we explore differences between unemployed men and women in their probabilities to find a job, their initial wages if they find a new job, and the likelihood to fall back into unemployment. We estimate bivariate proportional hazard models for unemployment duration and for the consecutive job duration for men and women separately, and decompose the gender gap using a non-linear Oaxaca decomposition. Gender differentials in labour market outcomes are procyclical, probably due to the procyclical nature of typically male occupations. While a higher level of education protects women in particular from unemployment, having children hampers women?s employment and initial wages after unemployment. There are lower gender gaps in the public sector and in high technology- firms. Decompositions show that the gender gaps are not explained by differences in sample composition. Indeed, if women had similar characteristics to men, the gender gap would be even wider.
    Keywords: unemployment duration; job duration; decomposition; labour market outcomes
    JEL: C14 E32 J62 J64
    Date: 2017–04
  2. By: Oyvat, Cem; Tekgüç, Hasan
    Abstract: This paper examines two structural factors that have restricted educational development in Southeastern Turkey: land inequality and ethnic fractionalization/conflict. Until recently a semi-feudal structure persisted in the region with politically and economically powerful tribal leaders and large landowners called ağas. At the same time, the region has been the site of an ethnic conflict, which has been ongoing as an armed insurgency for over 30 years between Kurdish insurgents and the Turkish State. Using a province-level data set, we test the impact of land inequality, conflict and ethnicity on education investment and school enrollment for the period 1970-2012. We find that higher land inequality reduces the school enrollment rates due to budget constraints imposed on poorer households. However, the economic and political power of ağas in the region does not block education investments. Moreover, we find that although the armed conflict in the region did not directly hinder education investments, it did reduce school enrollment rates at middle and high school levels, while increasing enrollment at the primary school level. Finally, we find that provinces with higher percentages of Kurdish population received less education investment even after controlling for conflict and land inequality. These results suggest that high land inequality and the Turkish State’s neglect of Kurdish areas were the important factors behind Southeastern Turkey’s educational underdevelopment, while the conflict had mixed effects on the education in the region.
    Keywords: land distribution; agrarian structures; conflict; development; education
    JEL: D74 I24 O17 Q15
    Date: 2017–04–24
  3. By: Tamas Hajdu (Institute of Economics, Research Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences); Gabor Hajdu (Institute for Sociology, Centre for Social Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and MTA-ELTE Peripato Comparative Social Dynamics Research Group, Hungary)
    Abstract: In 2012, smoking restrictions were extended to hospitality venues in Hungary. Women working in bars and restaurants were primarily affected by the intervention. In this research, we analyze the effect of this smoking ban on the outcomes of their intended pregnancies. Using complete individual live birth, fetal loss (miscarriage, stillbirth), and infant mortality registry data, we examine the probability of live birth, indicators of health at birth, and the probability of death in the first year of life. We perform a difference-in-differences estimation and show that the smoking ban has improved health at birth of the newborns of mothers working in bars and restaurants and has reduced infant mortality among them. Performing a series of robustness tests, we provide evidence that strongly supports the causal interpretation of our results. We also show that the ban was more beneficial for newborns of parents with low educational attainment and with lower fetal health endowments.
    Keywords: smoking ban, policy evaluation, health at birth
    JEL: I18 J13
    Date: 2017–02
  4. By: SATO Kaori; HASHIMOTO Yuki; OWAN Hideo
    Abstract: Past literature has shown that job segregation by gender is one major cause of the widely observed gender pay gap and that there is also a gender difference in developmental job assignments for broader job experience. This paper examines how gender differences in job assignments are associated with the gender gap in pay and promotion using the personnel records of a Japanese manufacturing company. One of the major findings is that broader work experience through job transfers across establishments are associated with a higher promotion probability and future wages for employees of both genders, but this relationship is especially strong for women, which is consistent with the existence of statistical discrimination against them. Furthermore, according to our fixed effects model estimation of wage function, broader work experience leads to higher wages for men but not for women, implying that women accept promotions without pay raises much more often than men.
    Date: 2017–03
  5. By: Leslie S. Stratton (Virginia Commonwealth University); Nabanita Datta Gupta (Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University, Denmark); David Reimer (Danish School of Education, Aarhus University)
    Abstract: We examine the role of cognitive and non-cognitive skills on enrollment in and completion of three types of vocational training (VET): education/health, technical, and business. Using two nine-year panels of Danish youths, estimation proceeds separately by gender, controlling for selection and right censoring. Cognitive skills are captured with math and language exam scores, non-cognitive skills with teacher-assigned grades. We find that all skills are inversely related to enrollment and math scores are positively related to certification for all VET programs. Language skills are, however, inversely related to completion for technical VET and non-cognitive skills are important only for business VET.
    Keywords: Vocational education, Enrollment, Vocational certification
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2017–04–19

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