nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2017‒04‒09
five papers chosen by
Michele Battisti
ifo Institut

  1. Gender differences in honesty: The role of social value orientation By Grosch, Kerstin; Rau, Holger
  2. Remain single or live together: Does culture matter? By Marcén, Miriam; Morales, Marina
  3. Decomposing culture: An analysis of gender, language, and labor supply in the household By Gay, Victor; Hicks, Daniel L.; Santacreu-Vasut, Estefania; Shoham, Amir
  4. Is the Allocation of Time Gender Sensitive to Food Price Changes? An Investigation of Hours of Work in Uganda By Daniela Campus; Gianna Giannelli
  5. Guaranteed Employment and Universal Child Care For a New Social Contract By Jon D. Wisman; Aaron Pacitti

  1. By: Grosch, Kerstin; Rau, Holger
    Abstract: This paper experimentally analyzes the determinants of the honesty norm in a lying game. The findings confirm common gender differences, i.e., men cheat significantly more than women. We detect a novel correlation between subjects' magnitude of concern they have for others (social value orientation) and their moral valuation of the norm honesty. The data suggest that individualistic subjects are less honest than prosocial ones. Interestingly, this difference can explain the gender differences we observe. First, we find that the distribution of social value orientation differs between gender, i.e., significantly more male subjects are characterized as individualistic subjects. Second, once we control for social value orientation the gender differential disappears.
    Keywords: experiment,gender differences,honesty,social value orientation
    JEL: C91 H26 J16
    Date: 2017
  2. By: Marcén, Miriam; Morales, Marina
    Abstract: This paper studies the role of culture in determining the decision to live together (as married or unmarried couples). To examine this issue, we utilize data on first-generation immigrants who arrived to the United States at or before the age of 5. We follow the epidemiological approach, indicating that the dissimilarities in the behavior of young-arrival immigrants originating from different countries, who grew up and live in the same country, can be interpreted as evidence of the existence of a cultural effect. Results show a positive and statistically significant relationship between the cultural proxy, that is, the proportion of individuals living together by country of origin, and the immigrant choice of living with a partner. We extend this analysis to the examination of both married and unmarried cohabitation, separately, and to an exploration of the formation of same- or different-origin couples. In all cases, our findings suggest an important role of culture. The results are robust after controlling for several home-country observable and unobservable characteristics, and to the use of different subsamples. With respect to the transmission of culture, we show empirical evidence of horizontal transmission of culture.
    Keywords: Culture, Immigrants, Live together, Marriage, Cohabitation
    JEL: J12 J15 Z13
    Date: 2017–03–17
  3. By: Gay, Victor; Hicks, Daniel L.; Santacreu-Vasut, Estefania; Shoham, Amir
    Abstract: Despite broad progress in closing many dimensions of the gender gap around the globe, recent research has shown that traditional gender roles can still exert a large influence on female labor force participation, even in developed economies. This paper empirically analyzes the role of culture in determining the labor market engagement of women within the context of collective models of household decision making. In particular, we use the epidemiological approach to study the relationship between gender in language and labor market participation among married female immigrants to the U.S. We show that the presence of gender in language can act as a marker for culturally acquired gender roles and that these roles are important determinants of household labor allocations. Female immigrants who speak a language with sex-based grammatical rules exhibit lower labor force participation, hours worked, and weeks worked. Our strategy of isolating one component of culture reveals that roughly two thirds of this relationship can be explained by correlated cultural factors, including the role of bargaining power in the household and the impact of ethnic enclaves, and that at most one third is potentially explained by language having a causal impact.
    Keywords: Culture, Female labor force participation, Immigrants, Language structure, Grammar
    JEL: J16 J22 J61 Z13
    Date: 2017–03–18
  4. By: Daniela Campus; Gianna Giannelli (Dipartimento di Scienze per l'Economia e l'Impresa)
    Abstract: Dramatic spikes in food prices, like those observed over the last years, represent a real threat to food security in developing countries with severe consequences for many aspects of human life. Price instability can also affect the intra-household allocation of time, thus changing the labour supply of women, who traditionally play the role of ‘shock absorbers’. This paper explores the nature of time poverty by examining how changes in the prices of the two major staples consumed, matooke and cassava, have affected the paid and unpaid labour time allocation in Ugandan households. We exploit the panel nature of the Uganda National Household Survey by adopting a Tobit-hybrid model. Our results show that gender differentials in the intra-household allocation of labour actually occur in correspondence with changes in food prices. We find that, overall, women work significantly more, since the additional hours women work in the labour market are not counterbalanced by a relevant reduction in their other labour activities. For men, we do not find any significant effect of price changes on hours of work.
    Keywords: food prices, labour supply, gender, Uganda
    JEL: J16 J22 J43 Q11
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Jon D. Wisman; Aaron Pacitti
    Abstract: The United States is falling behind many other rich nations on a broad spectrum of measures of the quality of life. These include social mobility, inequality, education, crime, health and longevity. Polls suggest that many Americans have not only lost their optimism concerning the future, but have become angry as well. This article sets forth the elements of a new social contract, one that would deliver substantial results almost overnight and which conforms to the traditional American values of the importance of work, that everyone should have a fair opportunity for upwards mobility, and the central importance of the family. This proposal is composed of two parts: The first is guaranteed employment, and where necessary, the retraining required to enable workers to successfully enter the regular workforce. The second is universal child care to give all parents the possibility of participating in the labor force. The article discusses in depth how these measures would reverse the relative decline in quality of life in America. It also reveals how, although these measure would be costly, their payoff for the economy would far offset the costs.
    Keywords: Guaranteed employment, retraining, social costs of unemployment, child care
    JEL: E24 J83 H10 I24
    Date: 2017

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