nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2016‒11‒06
eight papers chosen by
Michele Battisti
ifo Institut

  1. Early Childcare, Child Cognitive Outcomes and Inequalities in the UK By Del Boca, Daniela; Piazzalunga, Daniela; Pronzato, Chiara D.
  2. Gender Gaps in the Effects of Childhood Family Environment: Do They Persist into Adulthood? By Brenøe, Anne Ardila; Lundberg, Evelina
  3. The Cultural diffusion of the fertility transition: Evidence from internal migration in 19th century France By Guillaume Daudin; Raphaël Franck; Hillel Rapoport
  4. The causal effect of age at migration on youth educational attainment By Dominique Lemmermann; Regina T. Riphahn
  5. General versus Vocational Education: Lessons from a Quasi-Experiment in Croatia By Ivan Zilic
  6. Health, Consumption and Inequality By Jose-Victor Rios-Rull; Josep Pijoan-Mas
  7. Immigration and the Reallocation of Work Health Risks By Giuntella, Osea; Mazzonna, Fabrizio; Nicodemo, Catia; Vargas-Silva, Carlos
  8. Silence of the Innocents: Illegal Immigrants' Underreporting of Crime and their Victimization By Comino, Stefano; Mastrobuoni, Giovanni; Nicolò, Antonio

  1. By: Del Boca, Daniela (University of Turin); Piazzalunga, Daniela (IRVAPP); Pronzato, Chiara D. (University of Turin)
    Abstract: The objective of this research is to explore the impact of early childcare on child cognitive outcomes. We utilize the Millennium Cohort Survey (MCS) for the United Kingdom, which provides very detailed information about several modalities of childcare as well as several child outcomes. In our empirical analysis, we estimate the association between formal childcare and child cognitive outcomes, allowing the effect of formal childcare to be different for children from different family backgrounds, controlling for a large number of variables (regarding the child, the mother, the father, the household). In a second step, we simulate how an increase in formal childcare attendance can affect inequalities across children. Our results show that childcare attendance has a positive impact on child cognitive outcomes, which are stronger for children from low socio–economic background.
    Keywords: child care, child outcomes, inequalities
    JEL: J13 H75
    Date: 2016–10
  2. By: Brenøe, Anne Ardila (University of Copenhagen); Lundberg, Evelina (Uppsala University)
    Abstract: We examine the differential effects of family disadvantage on the education and adult labor market outcomes of men and women using high-quality administrative data on the entire population of Denmark born between 1966 and 1995. We link parental education and family structure during childhood to male-female and brother-sister differences in teenage outcomes, educational attainment, and adult earnings and employment. Our results are consistent with U.S. findings that boys benefit more from an advantageous family environment than do girls in terms of the behavior and grade-school outcomes. Father's education, which has not been examined in previous studies, is particularly important for sons. However, we find a very different pattern of parental influence on adult outcomes. The gender gaps in educational attainment, employment, and earnings are increasing in maternal education, benefiting daughters. Paternal education decreases the gender gaps in educational attainment (favoring sons) and labor market outcomes (favoring daughters). We conclude that differences in the behavior of school-aged boys and girls are a poor proxy for differences in skills that drive longer-term outcomes.
    Keywords: gender gap, parental education, family structure, education, labor market outcomes
    JEL: I20 J1 J2 J3
    Date: 2016–10
  3. By: Guillaume Daudin (PSL, Université Paris-Dauphine, LEDa-DIAL UMR IRD 225); Raphaël Franck (Bar Ilan University, Department of Economics, 52900 Ramat Gan, Israel, and Marie Curie Fellow at the Department of Economics at Brown University, Providence 02912 RI, USA.); Hillel Rapoport (Paris School of Economics, University Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: France experienced the demographic transition before richer and more educated countries. This paper offers a novel explanation for this puzzle that emphasizes the diffusion of culture and information through internal migration. It tests how migration affected fertility by building a decennial bilateral migration matrix between French regions for 1861-1911. The identification strategy uses exogenous variation in transportation costs resulting from the construction of railways. The results suggest the convergence towards low birth rates can be explained by the diffusion of low-fertility norms by migrants, especially by migrants to and from Paris.
    Keywords: Fertility, France, Demographic Transition, Migration.
    JEL: J13 N33 O15
    Date: 2016–05
  4. By: Dominique Lemmermann; Regina T. Riphahn
    Abstract: We investigate the causal effect of age at migration on subsequent educational attainment in the destination country. To identify the causal effect we compare the educational attainment of siblings at age 21, exploiting the fact that they typically migrate at different ages within a given family. We consider several education outcomes conditional on family fixed effects. We take advantage of long running and detailed data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, which entails an oversample of immigrants and provides information on language skills. We find significant effects of age at migration on educational attainment and a critical age of migration around age 6. The educational attainment of female immigrants responds more strongly to a high age at immigration than that of males.
    Keywords: immigration, education, integration, school attainment, Germany, causal estimation, family fixed effect
    JEL: I21 J61 C21
    Date: 2016–10
  5. By: Ivan Zilic (The Institute of Economics, Zagreb)
    Abstract: This paper identifies the causal effect of an educational reform implemented in Croatia in 1975/76 and 1977/78 on educational and labor market outcomes. High-school education was split into two phases which resulted in reduced tracking and extended general curriculum for pupils attending vocational training. Exploiting the rules on elementary school entry and timing of the reform, we use a regression discontinuity design and pooled Labor Force Surveys 2000–2012 to analyze the effect of the reform on educational attainment and labor market outcomes. We find that the reform, on average, reduced the probability of having university education, which we contribute to attaching professional context to once purely academic and general high-school programs. We also observe heterogeneity of the effects across gender, as for males we find that the probability of finishing high school decreased, while for the females we do not observe any adverse effects, only an increase in the probability of having some university education. We explain this heterogeneity with different selection into schooling for males and females. Reform did not positively affect individuals’ labor market perspectives; therefore, we conclude that the observed general-vocational wage differential is mainly driven by self-selection into the type of high school.
    Keywords: general education, vocational training, reform
    JEL: I21 J24 P20
    Date: 2016–10
  6. By: Jose-Victor Rios-Rull (University of Pennsylvania); Josep Pijoan-Mas (CEMFI)
    Abstract: We use a stylized model of endogenous health choices to construct compensated variation measures of inequality between individuals in different education and wealth groups at age 50, taking into account differences in consumption, differences in health, and differences in mortality between types. In doing so, we allow for the more disadvantaged types to take actions to improve their health when given some extra income. We use a simple revealed preference argument to measure the health-improving technology with information on consumption, medical expenditure, and health transitions by different types. We find that inequality in education is much more damaging in welfare terms than education in wealth due to the larger differences in life expectancy by education groups than by wealth groups. Our estimates of health technology show that only a small fraction of life expectancy differences between individuals of different education can be imputed to differential medical expenditure after age 50.
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Giuntella, Osea (University of Oxford); Mazzonna, Fabrizio (USI Università della Svizzera Italiana); Nicodemo, Catia (University of Oxford); Vargas-Silva, Carlos (University of Oxford)
    Abstract: This paper studies the effects of immigration on the allocation of occupational physical burden and work health risks. Using data for England and Wales from the Labour Force Survey, we find that, on average, immigration leads to a reallocation of UK-born workers towards jobs characterized by lower physical intensity and injury risk. The results also show important differences across skill groups. Immigration reduces the average physical burden of UK-born workers with medium levels of education, but has no significant effect on those with low levels.
    Keywords: immigration, labor-market, physical burden, work-related injuries, health
    JEL: J61 I10
    Date: 2016–10
  8. By: Comino, Stefano (University of Udine); Mastrobuoni, Giovanni (University of Essex); Nicolò, Antonio (University of Padua)
    Abstract: We analyze the consequences of illegally residing in a country on the likelihood of reporting a crime to the police and, as a consequence, on the likelihood to become victims of a crime. We use an immigration amnesty to address two issues when dealing with the legal status of immigrants: it is both endogenous as well as mostly unobserved in surveys. Right after the 1986 US Immigration Reform and Control Act, which disproportionately legalized individuals of Hispanic origin, crime victims of Hispanic origin in cities with a large proportion of illegal Hispanics become considerably more likely to report a crime. Non-Hispanics show no changes. Difference-in-differences estimates that adjust for the misclassification of legal status imply that the reporting rate of undocumented immigrants is close to 11 percent. Gaining legal status the reporting rate triples, approaching the reporting rate of non-Hispanics. We also find some evidence that following the amnesty Hispanics living in metropolitan areas with a large share of illegal migrants experience a reduction in victimization. This is coherent with a simple behavioral model of crime that guides our empirical strategies, where amnesties increase the reporting rate of legalized immigrants, which, in turn, modify the victimization of natives and migrants.
    Keywords: immigration, amnesty, crime reporting, victimization survey
    JEL: J15 K37 K42 R23
    Date: 2016–10

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