nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2016‒10‒30
eight papers chosen by
Michele Battisti
ifo Institut

  1. Learning by doing, low level equilibrium trap, and effect of domestic policies on child labour By Chakraborty, Kamalika; Chakraborty, Bidisha
  2. The Effect of House Prices on Fertility: Evidence from Canada By Jeremy Clark; Ana Ferrer
  3. Financial Literacy: Thai Middle Class Women Do Not Lag behind By Antonia Grohmann; Olaf Hübler; Roy Kouwenberg; Lukas Menkhoff
  4. The Causes and Consequences of Increased Female Education and Labor Force Participation in Developing Countries By Rachel Heath; Seema Jayachandran
  5. Representation and Salary Gaps by Race/Ethnicity and Gender at Selective Public Universities By Diyi Li; Cory Koedel
  6. Developmental Associations between Conduct Problems and Expressive Language in Early Childhood: A Population-Based Study By Lisa-Christine ? Girard; Jean-Baptiste Pingault; Orla Doyle; Bruno Falissard; Richard Ernest Tremblay
  7. Immigrant Category of Admission of the Parents and Outcomes of the Children: How far does the Apple Fall? By Casey Warman; Christopher Worswick
  8. School Hours and Maternal Labour Supply: A Natural Experiment from Germany By Nikki Shure

  1. By: Chakraborty, Kamalika; Chakraborty, Bidisha
    Abstract: This paper builds an overlapping generations household economy model with learning by doing effect in unskilled work. We study the short run equilibrium of schooling, relationship between child schooling and parental schooling, long run dynamics of schooling and human capital and relative effectiveness of two domestic policies- child labour ban and education subsidy on schooling. We find some interesting results. If parents working in unskilled sector do not experience any schooling at their childhood, they will never send their children for schooling. But the relationship between parental schooling and child schooling may not be monotonic. This relationship depends on other factors like subsistence consumption expenditure, learning by doing effect, responsiveness of wage to human capital in skilled sector, efficiency of education technology. Existence of low level equilibrium trap for unskilled parent depends on the specific form of human capital accumulation function. For a certain range of parental schooling time path of child schooling will be oscillating in nature. Decrease in child wage increases steady state schooling only if the maximum possible adult unskilled wage exceeds the sum of the schooling cost and subsistence expenditure of the household. If unskilled adult wage is sufficiently small, education subsidy is more effective in enhancing schooling than banning child labour.
    Keywords: child labour, schooling, human capital, low level equilibrium trap, oscillation, child labour ban, education subsidy
    JEL: I21 J22 J24 J82
    Date: 2016–10–22
  2. By: Jeremy Clark (University of Canterbury); Ana Ferrer
    Abstract: The price of housing is an important and under-studied candidate for consideration in fertility decisions. Theoretically, higher housing prices will cause renters to have fewer additional children, and home owners to have more children if they already have sufficient housing and low substitution between children and other “goods†, and fewer children otherwise. In this paper, we combine longitudinal data from the Canadian Survey of Labour Income and Dynamics (SLID) and housing price data from the Canadian Real Estate Association to estimate the effect of housing price on fertility. We follow non-moving women aged 18-40 (with their associated families) over time to ask whether changes in lagged housing price affects marginal or total fertility. For home owners, we find that lagged housing prices are positively associated with marginal fertility using pooled cross section or fixed effects, negatively associated with total fertility under pooled cross section, but positively associated using fixed effects. For renters, lagged housing prices are not significantly negatively associated with either total or marginal fertility measures.
    Keywords: Economic Determinants of Fertility, Housing Prices, Wealth Effects, Home Ownership
    JEL: D13 J13 J18 R21
    Date: 2016–10–27
  3. By: Antonia Grohmann; Olaf Hübler; Roy Kouwenberg; Lukas Menkhoff
    Abstract: This research studies the stylized fact of a “gender gap” in that women tend to have lower financial literacy than men. Our data which samples middle-class people from Bangkok does not show a gender gap. This result is not explained by men’s low financial literacy, nor by women’s high income and good education. Rather, it seems influenced by country characteristics on general gender equality and finance-related equality, such as little gender gaps regarding pupils’ mathematics abilities or secondary school enrollment, and women’s strong role in financial affairs. This may indicate ways to reduce the gender gap in financial literacy elsewhere.
    Keywords: financial literacy, financial behavior, gender gap, individual characteristics, societal norms, Thailand
    JEL: D14 J16 D91
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Rachel Heath; Seema Jayachandran
    Abstract: This article describes recent trends in female education and labor force participation in developing countries. It also reviews the literature on the causes and effects of the recent changes in female education and employment levels.
    JEL: J16 O15
    Date: 2016–10
  5. By: Diyi Li; Cory Koedel (University of Missouri)
    Abstract: We use data from the 2015-16 academic year to document faculty representation and wage gaps by race/ethnicity and gender in six fields at 40 selective, public universities. Consistent with widely available information, black, Hispanic, and female professors are underrepresented and white and Asian professors are overrepresented in our data. We show that disadvantaged-minority and female underrepresentation is driven predominantly by underrepresentation in STEM fields. A comparison of senior and junior faculty suggests a trend toward greater diversity in academia along racial/ethnic and gender lines, especially in STEM fields, because younger faculty are more diverse. However, black faculty are an exception; there is little indication that their representation is improving among young faculty. We decompose racial/ethnic and gender wage gaps and show that three observed factors account for most or all of the gaps: academic field, experience, and research productivity. We find no evidence of wage premiums for individuals who improve racial/ethnic and gender diversity, although for black faculty we cannot rule out a modest premium.
    Keywords: faculty diversity, faculty wage gaps, race wage gaps, gender wage gaps, stem faculty
    JEL: I20 J10 J30
    Date: 2016–10
  6. By: Lisa-Christine ? Girard; Jean-Baptiste Pingault; Orla Doyle; Bruno Falissard; Richard Ernest Tremblay
    Abstract: Conduct problems have been associated with poor language development, however the direction of this association in early childhood remains unclear. This study examined the longitudinal directional associations between conduct problems and expressive language ability. Children enrolled in the UK Millennium Cohort Study (N = 14, 004; 50.3 % boys) were assessed at 3 and 5 years of age. Parent reports of conduct problems and standardised assessments of expressive language were analyzed using cross-lagged modeling. Conduct problems at 3 years was associated with poorer expressive language at 5 years and poorer expressive language at 3 years was associated with increased conduct problems by 5 years. The results support reciprocal associations, rather than a specific unidirectional path, which is commonly found with samples of older children. The emergence of problems in either domain can thus negatively impact upon the other over time, albeit the effects were modest. Studies examining the effects of intervention targeting conduct problems and language acquisition prior to school entry may be warranted in testing the efficacy of prevention programmes related to conduct problems and poor language ability early in childhood.
    Keywords: Conduct problems; Expressive language; Early childhood; Millennium Cohort Study
    Date: 2016–08
  7. By: Casey Warman (Department of Economics Dalhousie University); Christopher Worswick (Dalhousie University)
    Abstract: Immigrants in many Western countries have experienced poor economic outcomes. This has led to a lack of integration of child immigrants (the 1.5 generation) and the second generation in some countries. However, in Canada, child immigrants and the second generation have on average integrated very well economically. We examine the importance of Canada's entry classes and determine if there is an additional benefit of the selection under the Economic Classes, and in particular the Skilled Workers Class, in terms of the earnings outcomes of the child immigrants (the 1.5 generation). Using administrative data on landing records matched with subsequent income tax records, we are able to identify the entry class of child immigrants, and then consider their economic outcomes in Canada. We find that the superior outcomes of the parents who entered as Skilled Workers extends to the children in terms of approximately 18 to 24 percent higher earnings than those whose parent entered under the Family Class of admission. In addition, we find that this earnings advantage persists (at 7 to 15 percent) even after we control for the education, language ability and detailed country of origin of the person's parent who had been the Principal Applicant.
    Keywords: Canada, Immigration, Earnings, 1.5 generation, Second generation, Childimmigrants, Integration, Points System, Skilled Workers, Economic Class
    JEL: J15 J13 J31 J61 J62
    Date: 2016–10
  8. By: Nikki Shure (Department of Social Science, University College London)
    Abstract: This paper examines the recent German reform to increase primary school hours and the effect this has had on maternal labour supply. The introduction of Ganztagsschulen, or full day schools, has been one of the largest and most expensive reforms in the German education landscape over the past 15 years, but with little evaluation. While the impetus for the reform came from improving pupils' learning outcomes, it was also motivated by a desire to increase maternal labour supply, which had been traditionally low in Germany as compared to other countries. I exploit the quasi-experimental nature of reform to assess whether or not gaining access to a full day school increases the likelihood that mothers enter into the labor market or extend their working hours if already employed. I use the German Socio-Economic Panel data set (GSOEP) and link it to a school-level data set with geographical information software (GIS). Using a flexible difference-in-difference approach in my estimation of linear probability and logit models, I find that the policy has a statistically significant effect of approximately five percentage points at the extensive margin, drawing more women into the labor market. I find no significant impact of the policy at the intensive margin; women who were already working do not extend their hours and in some cases even shorten them. These results are robust to a variety of checks and comparable to previous findings in the literature on childcare and maternal labor supply. This is one of the few papers, however, to look at the relationship between primary school and maternal labor supply at the level of treatment.
    Keywords: Time Allocation and Labor Supply, Education: Government Policy, Economics of Gender
    JEL: J22 I28 J16

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