nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2016‒10‒09
six papers chosen by
Michele Battisti
ifo Institut

  1. More Female Manager Hires through More Female Managers? Evidence from Germany By Bossler, Mario; Mosthaf, Alexander; Schank, Thorsten
  2. Gender and Agency within the Household: Experimental Evidence from Pakistan By Farah Said; Giovanna d'Adda; Marcel Fafchamps; Uzma Afzal
  3. Parents, schools and human capital differences across countries By Marta De Philippis; Federico Rossi
  4. The Poor and the Poorest, fifty years on: Evidence from British Household Expenditure Surveys of the 1950s and 1960s By Ian Gazeley; Hector Gutierrez Rufrancos; Andrew Newell; Kevin Reynolds; Rebecca Searle
  5. Earnings among Nine Ethnic Minorities and the Han Majority in China's Cities By Gustafsson, Björn Anders; Yang, Xiuna
  6. The Impact of Intergenerational Transfers on Household Wealth Inequality in Japan and the United States By Yoko Niimi; Charles Yuji Horioka

  1. By: Bossler, Mario (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg); Mosthaf, Alexander (University of Mainz); Schank, Thorsten (University of Mainz)
    Abstract: This paper investigates if there is state dependence in the gender composition of managers in German establishments. We analyze whether the number of hired female managers (respectively the share of females within hired managers) depends on the past hiring decisions of an establishment. Using administrative data, we apply dynamic linear models and dynamic tobit models accounting for unobserved heterogeneity and the endogeneity of lagged dependent variables. We find that an increase of female manager hires in present leads to more female hired managers in the future. Similarly, the number of male manager hires also exhibits state dependence.
    Keywords: female managers, gender discrimination, state dependence, dynamic panel data models
    JEL: C23 J16 J71 M12
    Date: 2016–09
  2. By: Farah Said; Giovanna d'Adda; Marcel Fafchamps; Uzma Afzal
    Abstract: Theoretical and empirical work on intra-household decision making capture empowerment through bargaining weights given to individual preferences, and infer such weights from household consumption allocations. In this paper we test two key hypotheses underlying this work: first, that spousal influence is the same for all private consumption goods; and second, that women have pent up demand for pure agency. We use data from a survey and a novel laboratory experiment implemented with adult couples in Pakistan. We find that women's influence on household decisions is decreasing in the importance of the decision. We find no evidence that women have pent up demand for agency. Instead, women are less willing to pay for agency when facing an unknown man. We interpret this evidence as suggesting that women in our study population have internalized gender norms, and that these norms regulate interactions between genders most strongly outside of the household. We also find little evidence, within our experimental setting, that willingness to pay for agency is affected by the instrumental value of agency.
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Marta De Philippis (Banca d'Italia); Federico Rossi (London School of Economics)
    Abstract: Results from international standardized tests show large cross-country differences in students' performances. Where do these gaps come from? This paper argues that differences in cultural environments and parental inputs may be of great importance. We show that the school performance of second-generation immigrants is similar to that of native students in their parents' countries of origin. This holds true even after accounting for different family background characteristics, schools attended and selection into immigration. We quantify the overall contribution of various parental inputs to the observed cross-country differences in PISA test performance and show that they account for between 12% and 30% of the total variation and for most of the gap between East Asia and other regions. This pattern calls into questions whether PISA scores should be interpreted only as a quality measure for a country's educational system, since they actually contain an important intergenerational and cultural component.
    Keywords: parental inputs, school quality
    JEL: I25 O43 F22 Z1 J61
    Date: 2016–09
  4. By: Ian Gazeley (Department of History, University of Sussex); Hector Gutierrez Rufrancos (Department of Economics, University of Sussex); Andrew Newell (Department of Economics, University of Sussex and IZA, Bonn); Kevin Reynolds (Department of History, University of Sussex); Rebecca Searle (Department of History, University of Sussex)
    Abstract: We re-explore Abel-Smith and Townsend’s landmark study of poverty in early post WW2 Britain. They found a large increase in poverty between 1953-4 and 1960, a period of relatively strong economic growth. Our re-examination is a first exploitation of the data extracted from the recent digitisation of the Ministry of Labour’s Enquiry into Household Expenditure in 1953-4. First we closely replicate their results. We find that Abel-Smith and Townsend’s method generated a greater rise in poverty than other reasonable methods. Using contemporary standard poverty lines, we find that the relative poverty rate grew only a little at most, and the absolute poverty rate fell, between 1953-4 and 1961, as might be expected in a period of rising real incomes and steady inequality. We also extend the poverty rate time series of Goodman and Webb (1995) back to 1953-4.
    Keywords: poverty, inequality, 1950s, Britain
    JEL: N14 N34 O15
    Date: 2016–04
  5. By: Gustafsson, Björn Anders (University of Gothenburg); Yang, Xiuna (China Development Research Foundation)
    Abstract: This paper asks if economic growth and steps towards a market economy have affected earnings gaps between the Han and nine large urban ethnic minorities: Zhuang, Hui, Manchurian, Tujia, Uighur, Miao, Tibetan, Mongol and Korean. It also asks how earnings premiums and earnings penalties have changed for the nine ethnic minorities. For the analysis we use a subsample of the 2005 China's Inter-Census Survey. We find examples of three different changes over time in earnings premiums and earnings penalties: One ethnic minority for whom the development has been more favourable than for the Han majority; a second category in which development has been similar; and a third category for which development has been unfavourable. We conclude from the analysis that it can be misleading to infer the experience of one ethnic minority from that of another.
    Keywords: earnings, ethnic minorities, Uighur, Tibetan, Korean
    JEL: J15 J31 J71 P23
    Date: 2016–09
  6. By: Yoko Niimi; Charles Yuji Horioka
    Abstract: To help shed light on the implications of intergenerational transfers for wealth inequality, this paper examines whether or not individuals who receive intergenerational transfers from their parents are more likely to leave bequests to their children than those who do not using data for Japan and the United States. The estimation results show that the receipt of intergenerational transfers from parents and/or parents-in-law increases the likelihood of individuals’ leaving bequests to their own children in both Japan and the United States, which in turn is likely to contribute to the persistence or widening of wealth disparities. However, such a tendency is found to be stronger among less better-off households in both countries, and this may help alleviate the disequalizing effect of intergenerational transfers on the distribution of wealth, at least to some extent.
    Date: 2016–09

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