nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2016‒09‒11
eight papers chosen by
Michele Battisti
ifo Institut

  1. Land Inequality, Education, and Marriage: Empirical Evidence from Nineteenth-Century Prussia By Cinnirella, Francesco; Hornung, Erik
  2. Paternal Multipartner Fertility and Child Neighborhood Disorder By Colleen Wynn
  3. Demographic Dividends, Gender Equality, and Economic Growth; The Case of Cabo Verde By Heloisa Marone
  4. What drives national differences in intensive grandparental childcare in Europe? By Giorgio Di Gessa; Karen Glaser; Debora Price; Eloi Ribe; Anthea Tinker
  5. The Effects of the Early Retirement Age on Retirement Decisions By Weber, Andrea
  6. Breaking the Cycle: the Intergenerational Transmission of Human Capital By Andrew Wheeler
  7. Explaining Income Inequality and Intergenerational Mobility: The Role of Fertility and Family Transfers By Julian Kozlowski; Diego Daruich
  8. Racial Differences in Transitions to Marriage for Unmarried Mothers By Gerald Daniels; Venoo Kakar; Anoshua Chaudhuri

  1. By: Cinnirella, Francesco; Hornung, Erik
    Abstract: In this study we review the literature on the relationship between landownership inequality and the accumulation of human capital in historical perspective. Furthermore we provide new evidence on the relationship between landownership inequality and marriage patterns at the county level in nineteenth-century Prussia. Formally the landed elite could have influenced not only the labor relations with the peasants but also their marriage decisions. Using cross-sectional as well as panel analysis we find no evidence that noble landowners directly affected marriage rates. Instead we find a robust negative association between average formal education and the share of married women. This finding is in line with recent theoretical and empirical literature on the role of gender specific human capital in the demographic transition.
    Keywords: education; Land Inequality; Marriage; Prussian Economic History
    JEL: I25 J12 N33 O43 Q15
    Date: 2016–09
  2. By: Colleen Wynn (University at Albany, SUNY)
    Abstract: Multipartner fertility (MPF) and neighborhoods have been separate recent areas of investigation in the social sciences. This study attempts to understand the association between paternal multipartner fertility and child neighborhood disorder as measured by physical neighborhood disorder. These analyses use the most recent wave of the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study. I find that even after controlling for formal child support agreements and paternal sociodemographic characteristics, children whose fathers have children with multiple women live in neighborhoods with greater physical disorder than their peers whose fathers do not have MPF. I discuss the relationship between paternal MPF and child neighborhood disorder as well as potential future avenues of research in this area.
    Keywords: Multipartner Fertility, Neighborhood Disorder, Fragile Families, Family Structure, Locational Attainment, Fathers
    JEL: J12 J13
    Date: 2016–08
  3. By: Heloisa Marone
    Abstract: This study analyzes Cabo Verde’s demographic transition from the perspective of gender equality. As the pace of the demographic transition slows, promoting gender equality and increasing women’s labor force participation will be progressively more important in enhancing otherwise slow-growth dynamics, reducing poverty, and improving the lives of all, women and men. The study investigates gender gaps in the labor market participation rate, employment conditions, and the use of time dedicated to unpaid work. It also discusses policy options to decrease the time women spend on unpaid work, enhance their employability, and enable them to secure employment. Overall, this study contributes to the debate on how better to manage the potential dividends resulting from demographic transitions on the still young but rapidly aging African continent.
    Keywords: Demographic transition;Cabo Verde;Economic growth;Gender equality;Income inequality;Labor force participation;Labor market characteristics;Demographics, Gender Equality, Economic Growth, Employment, Development
    Date: 2016–08–09
  4. By: Giorgio Di Gessa; Karen Glaser; Debora Price; Eloi Ribe; Anthea Tinker
    Abstract: Objectives. Grandparents play an important role in looking after grandchildren, although intensive grandparental childcare varies considerably across Europe. Few studies have explicitly investigated the extent to which such cross-national variations are associated with national level differences in individual demographic and socio-economic distributions along with contextual-structural and cultural factors (e.g., variations in female labor force participation, childcare provision, and cultural attitudes). Methods. We used multilevel models to examine associations between intensive grandparental childcare and contextual-structural and cultural factors, after controlling for grandparent, parent, and child characteristics using nationally representative data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. Results. Even controlling for cross-national differences in demographic and socio-economic distributions, contextual-structural factors play an important role in explaining grandparental childcare variations in Europe. In particular, higher levels of intensive grandparental childcare are found in countries with low labor force participation among younger and older women, and low formal childcare provision, where mothers in paid work largely rely on grandparental support on an almost daily basis. Discussion. Encouraging older women to remain in paid work is likely to have an impact on grandchild care which in turn may affect mothers’ employment, particularly in Southern European countries where there is little formal childcare.
    Keywords: Europe; Grandparents; Childcare; Female labor force participation; Intergenerational relationships; SHARE.
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2015–08–26
  5. By: Weber, Andrea
    Abstract: We present quasi-experimental evidence on the effects of increasing the Early Retirement Age (ERA) on older workers' retirement decisions. The analysis is based on social security reforms in Austria in 2000 and 2004, and administrative data allows us to distinguish between pension claims and job exits. Using a Regression Kink Design, we estimate that, within a birth cohort, a 1.0 year increase in the ERA leads to a 0.4 year increase in the average job exiting age and a 0.5 year increase in the average pension claiming age. When the ERA increases, many older workers remain in their jobs longer.
    Keywords: early retirement age; pension reform; regression kink design
    JEL: H55 J22 J26
    Date: 2016–09
  6. By: Andrew Wheeler
    Abstract: This paper examines the causal effect of parental education on the cognitive and non-cognitive development of children. I find that a parent's education is a strong determinant of their child's verbal aptitude, numerical aptitude and educational aspirations. Parents who complete high school rather than just primary school will on average lift their children's cognitive performance by 24 percentiles in maths, 15 percentiles in vocabulary and 23 percentiles in reading tests. Children of these parents will also aspire to complete two more years of schooling. Somewhat surprisingly, I find that parental education has no impact on children's self-esteem or self-efficacy. These results are robust to various specifications. I estimate these effects using instrumental variables, taking a change in education policy with differential effects on North Vietnam and South Vietnam as my instrument. The instruments used are relevant and strong, and there is sound cause to believe that they are valid. To my knowledge, this is the first study to derive a causal relationship between parental education and non-cognitive development. It also contributes to a sparse and unsettled literature on the causal relationship between parental education and cognitive development.
    Keywords: Cognitive Development; Non-cognitive Development; Parental Education; Instrumental Variables
    JEL: I25 I26 I28
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Julian Kozlowski (New York University); Diego Daruich (New York University)
    Abstract: How much of income inequality is due to initial opportunities relative to adult income risk? What factors determine intergenerational mobility? We study these questions with a particular interest in the impact of family choices: fertility and transfers. Fertility rates, which are higher for low-income than high-income families, are associated with differences in the level of resources available for children's education. To evaluate the quantitative importance of fertility and family transfers we extend the standard heterogeneous agent life-cycle model with idiosyncratic income shocks and incomplete markets to allow for endogenous fertility, family transfers and education. Initial conditions are defined as the agents' initial state variables, which are endogenously related to parental background. We find that initial conditions account for 50\% of the variation in lifetime-earnings. Moreover, fertility and parents-to-children transfers generate 20 and 39\% of the intergenerational mobility respectively.
    Date: 2016
  8. By: Gerald Daniels (Howard University); Venoo Kakar (San Francisco State University); Anoshua Chaudhuri (San Francisco State University)
    Abstract: We use data from the first five waves of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the effects of race, educational attainment, economic status, cohabitation patterns and attitudes towards marriage on transitions to marriage following a nonmarital birth for mothers. We find significant racial gaps in time to marriage with Black mothers being 60%- 65% more likely to delay marriage compared to White mothers. Racial differences for unmarried mothers remain robust across a host of models that we consider, suggesting that these differences cannot be fully explained by economic, demographic, or attitudinal factors. However, we find that the racial differences could be partly explained and reduced by (1) controlling for cohabitation overtime and (2) allowing the partial effect of mother's race on transition to marriage to depend on the level of poverty and attitudes of gender distrust. Our results also indicate that transition to marriage is highly stratified by education. Fathers who are college educated are more likely to get married sooner relative to their less educated counterparts. In contrast, the effect of mother's education on transition to marriage remains insigni cant at all levels.
    Keywords: Fragile Families, Marriage, Race, Cohabitation, Education, Hazard mod- els, Attitudes towards marriage
    JEL: J12
    Date: 2016–08

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