nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2016‒06‒18
seven papers chosen by
Michele Battisti
ifo Institut

  1. Female labor force participation, inequality and household well-being in the Second Globalization. The Spanish case By Paula Rodríguez-Modroño; Mauricio Matus López; Lina Gálvez-Muñoz
  2. Comparative analysis of the motherhood gap in employment and wages: the role of family policies and their interaction By Ewa Cukrowska-Torzewska
  3. The Short-Term Impact of Crime on School Enrollment and School Choice: Evidence from El Salvador By Juan Nelson Martinez Dahbura
  4. Immigration to the U.S.: A problem for the Republicans or the Democrats? By A.-M. Mayda; G. Peri; W. Steingress
  5. Aging, Retirement and Pay-As-You-Go Pensions By Cipriani, Giam Pietro
  6. The Effect of Low-Income Housing on Neighborhood Mobility: Evidence from Linked Micro-Data By Brummet, Quentin O.; Bartalotti, Otávio C.
  7. Intra-household labour supply after an unemployment event: The added worker effect By Lina Cardona-Sosa; Luz Adriana Flórez; Leonardo Morales Zurita

  1. By: Paula Rodríguez-Modroño (Department of Economics, Quantitative Methods and Economic History, Universidad Pablo de Olavide); Mauricio Matus López (Department of Economics, Quantitative Methods and Economic History, Universidad Pablo de Olavide); Lina Gálvez-Muñoz (Department of Economics, Quantitative Methods and Economic History, Universidad Pablo de Olavide)
    Abstract: The 20th century has witnessed an increase in the female participation force in Western countries, especially since 1940s. Explanations behind the more intensive use of female labour are of different nature: globalization forces, the relative female/male wage linked to an increase in education and productivity, the tertiarization of the economy, and other institutional and cultural factors that allow women to control fertility, invest in assets other than the family ones and alter female bargaining power. Since these phenomena are complex and might respond to specific reasons and timing in different countries, it is important to advance on country case studies in a comparative basis. While in other Western countries the increase in female labor participation started to be significant in the 1960s and 1970s, Spanish female activity rates started to rise dramatically in the 1980s, concurrently with the deep integration of Spain in international markets, especially through the entry in the European Union in 1986. In this paper, we will analyze the reasons behind the decalage in female labor force participation in Spain after WWII in comparison with other Western countries, and the subsequent catching up from the 1980s in order to determine the level of influence of Spanish integration in international markets, as well as other economic, institutional and cultural factors.
    Keywords: female labor force, globalization, gender analysis, inequality
    JEL: F66 J1 J2 N14 N34
    Date: 2016–05
  2. By: Ewa Cukrowska-Torzewska (Faculty of Economic Sciences-University of Warsaw)
    Abstract: The paper documents employment and wage gaps, which arise between mothers and childless women, for a set of 28 European countries. The role of family policies in explaining these inequalities is then examined by looking at a single policy as well as childcare and leave policies interaction. The findings from the fixed effects model reveal that childcare coverage for small children and the length of maternity and paid parental leaves are important for explaining the size of the motherhood gap in employment. The impact of the leaves depends, however, on childcare availability: long maternity leaves combined with high childcare coverage lead to greater employment gap than when the coverage is low. The results do not prove that the interaction effect is present for the motherhood wage gap, which is found to be predominantly affected by the length of paid parental leave.
    Keywords: family gap, maternal employment, family policies, childcare
    JEL: J13 J18 J22 J31
    Date: 2016–02
  3. By: Juan Nelson Martinez Dahbura (Faculty of Economics, Keio University)
    Abstract: This research employs household survey data from El Salvador to evaluate the short-term impact of several measures of crime and a truce between gangs during 2012 on school enrollment and the choice between public and private education for individuals 7 to 22 years old in 2013. The results show that homicides, thefts, robberies and extortions are significantly associated with lower school enrollment and higher attendance to public schools among boys in several age brackets. A robust positive impact of homicide rates and school enrollment for girls under 15 years old, and a positive association between property crimes and the choice of private schools for older girls is observed, possibly reflecting selective investment choices of parents.
    JEL: D13 I24 I25
    Date: 2016–05–16
  4. By: A.-M. Mayda; G. Peri; W. Steingress
    Abstract: This article studies the impact of immigration on the share of votes to the Republican and Democratic Party in US elections between 1994 and 2012. Our analysis is based on the variation across states and years and addresses the issue of endogeneity of immigrant flows using a set of instruments that leverage distance from country of origin and historical settlements of foreign-born to obtain a proxy for supply-driven immigration flows. Pooling all elections, immigration to the U.S. had a negative average impact on the vote share to the Republican Party. This is consistent with the typical view of political analysts in the U.S. However, this average effect – mainly detectable in House elections – has two components. When the growth of the immigrant population is due to an increase in naturalized migrants, the effect on Republican vote is clearly negative. Yet, when the share of non-citizen migrants in the population increases and their share in the state population is large – making immigration a salient policy issue – the impact on the Republican vote share is positive. These results are consistent with stronger voting preferences of naturalized immigrants for the Democratic Party relative to native voters, but also with native voters' political preferences shifting towards the Republican Party in places with high immigration of non-citizens. In our estimates, the second effect is only significant when immigrants are a large portion of the local population.
    Keywords: Elections, Immigration, Republican Party, Citizenship.
    JEL: F22 J61
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Cipriani, Giam Pietro (University of Verona)
    Abstract: In this paper we consider the effects of population aging on a pay-as-you-go financed defined contributions pension scheme. We show that when retirement decisions are endogenous, aging increases the retirement age and the steady state level of capital. The effect on pension payouts is in general ambiguous, except for the solution of full retirement, when this effect is unambiguously negative.
    Keywords: retirement, aging, PAYG pensions, overlapping generations model
    JEL: J13 H55
    Date: 2016–05
  6. By: Brummet, Quentin O.; Bartalotti, Otávio C.
    Abstract: While subsidized low-income housing construction provides affordable living conditions for poor households, many observers worry that building low-income housing in poor communities induces individuals to move to poor neighborhoods. We examine this issue using detailed, nationally representative microdata constructed from linked decennial censuses. Our analysis exploits exogenous variation in low-income housing supply induced by program eligibility rules for Low-Income Housing Tax Credits to estimate the effect of subsidized housing on neighborhood mobility patterns. The results indicate little evidence to suggest a causal effect of additional low-income housing construction on the characteristics of neighborhoods to which households move. This result is true for households across the income distribution, and supports the hypothesis that subsidized housing provides affordable living conditions without encouraging households to move to less-affluent neighborhoods than they would have otherwise.
    Date: 2016–05–13
  7. By: Lina Cardona-Sosa (Banco de la República de Colombia); Luz Adriana Flórez (Banco de la República de Colombia); Leonardo Morales Zurita (Banco de la República de Colombia)
    Abstract: In this paper we explore one of the oldest labour market phenomena documented in the literature: the added worker effect, which refers to the labour supply response of secondary workers to main earners´ job losses. To do so we take advantage of the panel data survey conducted by a Colombian Foundation, Fedesarrollo between 2007 and 2010, using a fixed effects model to account for household´s specific time invariant unobserved heterogeneity. Our results suggest that when the head of the household becomes unemployed, the labour force participation rate of their female partner increases between 9 and 20 percentage points. Such response appears during the first six months of household head´s unemployment. In addition, within one year of the head of the family becoming unemployed, their children are more likely to enter the labour market and less likely to be in tertiary education. Classification JEL: J20, J22, J38
    Keywords: unemployment, labour force participation, labour supply, fixed effects
    Date: 2016–06

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