nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2016‒04‒30
five papers chosen by
Michele Battisti
ifo Institut

  1. Segregated Integration: Recent Trends in the Austrian Gender Division of Labor By Margareta Kreimer; Ricardo Mora
  2. Women and Part-Time Farming: Understanding Labor Supply Decisions in Italian Farm Households By Tocco, Barbara; Bailey, Alastair; Davidova, Sophia; Raimondi, Valentina
  3. US Child Safety Seat Laws: Are they Effective, and Who Complies? By Jones, Lauren E.; Ziebarth, Nicolas R.
  4. Multifaceted Aid for Low-Income Students and College Outcomes: Evidence from North Carolina By Clotfelter, Charles T.; Hemelt, Steven W.; Ladd, Helen F.
  5. Birth Order and Health of Newborns: What Can We Learn from Danish Registry Data? By Anne Ardila Brenøe; Ramona Molitor

  1. By: Margareta Kreimer (University of Graz); Ricardo Mora (Universidad Carlos III)
    Abstract: Using micro data from the Austrian Labor Force Survey from 1996 to 2010, this paper explores the effects on gender segregation of two opposing trends in gender differentials: decreasing gender differentials in participation rates and increasing gender differentials in the incidence of part-time jobs. To do so, we propose an index for the gender division of labor and look at the contributions of gender differences in participation, the incidence of part-time jobs, and in occupational choices to its evolution. Our main results show that the gender division of labor is very stable over the 15-year period. This is because the positive effects from the rising female labor force participation rates are counterbalanced by the negative effects from increasing gender differences in the incidence of part-time jobs. We also find that occupational segregation is the most important source of the gender division of labor and that its contribution remains stable throughout the entire period. These results are robust to alternative definitions of economic activity and labor market involvement and are also found after controlling for educational levels and fields.
    Keywords: Gender Division of Labor; Sources of Gender Segregation; Segregation Indexes, Mutual Information
    JEL: J16 J24 J62
    Date: 2016–04
  2. By: Tocco, Barbara; Bailey, Alastair; Davidova, Sophia; Raimondi, Valentina
    Abstract: The pronounced gender gap in Italian agriculture is reflected by lower levels of female labor force participation, labor supply and managerial positions in the farm sector, coupled with their higher incidence of part-time work. The objective of the paper is to investigate the drivers of farm holders’ labor supply decisions while controlling for gender differences. Using micro-data from the Italian agricultural business survey (REA), this study employs a random effects ordered probit over the period 2002-2009. The results highlight significant gender differences in labor market responses. In particular, farm size and livestock systems are found to increase the on-farm labor supply of male farm holders, reflecting the role of men in the farm and gender differences in ownership, control and decision making over productive resources. The diverse impact of farm subsidies on labor supply may suggest the presence of credit constraints in female-operated households, preventing the capitalization of subsidies into fixed assets.
    Keywords: on-farm labor supply, part-time farming, gender-gap in agriculture, Italy., Farm Management, International Development, Q12, J22, J16, J43.,
    Date: 2015
  3. By: Jones, Lauren E. (Cornell University); Ziebarth, Nicolas R. (Cornell University)
    Abstract: This paper assesses the effectiveness of child safety seat laws. These laws progressively increased the mandatory age up to which children must be restrained in safety seats in cars. We use US Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data from 1978 to 2011 and rich state-time level variation in the implementation of these child safety seat laws for children of different ages. Increasing legal age thresholds is effective in increasing the actual age of child safety seat use. Across the child age distribution, restraint rates increase by about 30ppt in the long-run when the legal minimum age increases. However, we cannot reject the null hypothesis that restraining older children in safety seats does not reduce their likelihood to die in fatal accidents. We estimate that parents of 8.6M young children are "legal compliers." They compose an important target group for policymakers because these parents alter their parenting behavior when laws change.
    Keywords: child safety seats, age requirements, fatalities, FARS
    JEL: I18 K32 R41
    Date: 2016–04
  4. By: Clotfelter, Charles T. (Duke University); Hemelt, Steven W. (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill); Ladd, Helen F. (Duke University)
    Abstract: Launched in 2004, the Carolina Covenant combines grant-heavy financial aid with an array of non-financial supports for low-income students at an elite public university. We find that the program increased four-year graduation rates by about 8 percentage points for eligible students in the cohorts who experienced the fully developed program. For these cohorts, we also find suggestive effects on persistence to the fourth year of college, cumulative earned credits, and academic performance. We conclude that aid programs targeting low-income, high-ability students are most successful when they couple grant aid with strong non-financial supports.
    Keywords: postsecondary completion, financial aid
    JEL: I21 I22 I23 I24
    Date: 2016–04
  5. By: Anne Ardila Brenøe; Ramona Molitor
    Abstract: Research has shown a strong negative correlation between birth order and cognitive test scores, IQ, and educational outcomes. We ask whether birth order differences in health are present at birth using matched administrative data for more than 1,000,000 children born in Denmark between 1981 and 2010. Using family fixed effects models, we find a positive and robust birth order effect; lower parity children are less healthy at birth. Looking at the potential mechanisms, we find that during earlier pregnancies women have higher labor market attachment, behave more risky in terms of smoking, receive more prenatal care, and are diagnosed with more medical pregnancy complications. Yet, none of these factors explain the birth order differences at birth. This positive birth order effect at birth stands in stark contrast to a negative birth order effect in educational performance. Once we control for health at birth, the negative birth order effect in educational performance further increases.
    Keywords: Birth order, parity, child health, fetal health, health at birth, education
    JEL: I10 I12 J12 J13
    Date: 2015–10

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