nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2016‒04‒04
eight papers chosen by
Michele Battisti
ifo Institut

  1. Family background and youth labour market outcomes across Europe By Gabriella Berloffa; Eleonora Matteazzi; Paola Villa
  2. Employment and the Risk of Domestic Violence: Does the Breadwinner’s Gender Matter? By César Alonso-Borrego; Raquel Carrasco
  3. Paternal Unemployment During Childhood: Causal Effects on Youth Worklessness and Educational Attainment By Steffen Müller; R. Riphahn; C. Schwientek
  4. Female Labor Supply, Human Capital and Welfare Reform By Richard Blundell; Monica Costa Dias; Costas Meghir; Jonathan Shaw
  5. Racial Sorting and the Emergence of Segregation in American Cities By Allison Shertzer; Randall P. Walsh
  6. Population Policy: Abortion and Modern Contraception Are Substitutes By Miller, Grant; Valente, Christine
  7. How does the Gender Difference in Willingness to Compete evolve with Experience? By Thomas Buser
  8. The Educational Consequences of Language Proficiency for Young Children By Yao, Yuxin; Ohinata, Asako; van Ours, Jan C.

  1. By: Gabriella Berloffa (Department of Economics and Management, University of Trento, Italy); Eleonora Matteazzi (Department of Economics and Management, University of Trento, Italy); Paola Villa (Department of Economics and Management, University of Trento, Italy)
    Abstract: The paper investigates the intergenerational transmission of worklessness in a cross-country comparative analysis. Using the 2011 EU-SILC ad-hoc module on intergenerational transmission of disadvantages, we study the extent to which family background affects youth labour market outcomes. We focus on young people aged 25-34. The empirical findings provide evidence of an intergenerational persistence of worklessness and the positive role of parents’ employment in explaining youth labour market outcomes. Also gender differences with respect to the influence of the family of origin are relevant. Mothers' working condition during adolescence affects systematically, and to a large extent, their daughters’ probability of being employed, while fathers’ employment generally increases their sons' probability of being in employment. Empirical evidence suggests that policies should pay attention to both youth and parental worklessness.
    Keywords: family background, worklessness, intergenerational mobility, NEET, inequalities.
    JEL: J16 J62 J64
    Date: 2016–02
  2. By: César Alonso-Borrego (Department of Economics, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid); Raquel Carrasco (Department of Economics, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid)
    Abstract: This paper studies the effect on the risk of female victimization of the employment statuses of both partners, conditional on income and a set of sociodemographic characteristics. Using cross-sectional data from the Violence Against Women (VAW) surveys for Spain in 1999, 2002, and 2006, we address the potential endogeneity of employment and income variables using a multivariate probit model. We exploit geographical-level information on employment and unemployment rates by gender and age, and on household income, to identify the parameters of the model. Our estimation results, for which proper account of the endogeneity problem proves critical, show that male partner employment plays a major role in the risk of physical violence, while female employment only lowers the risk of violence when her partner is employed too. The lowest risk of physical abuse appears for more egalitarian couples in which both partners are employed.
    Keywords: intimate-partner violence, employment, discrete choice, multivariate probit, endogeneity.
    JEL: J12 D19 J16 C25 C26
    Date: 2016–03–15
  3. By: Steffen Müller; R. Riphahn; C. Schwientek
    Abstract: Using long-running data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (1984-2012), we investigate the impact of paternal unemployment on child labor market and education outcomes. We first describe correlation patterns and then use sibling fixed effects and the Gottschalk (1996) method to identify the causal effects of paternal unemployment. We find different patterns for sons and daughters. Paternal unemployment does not seem to causally affect the outcomes of sons. In contrast, it increases both daughters‘ worklessness and educational attainment. We test the robustness of the results and explore potential explanations.
    Keywords: youth unemployment, educational attainment, intergenerational mobility, causal effect, Gottschalk method, sibling fixed effects
    JEL: C C J
    Date: 2016–03
  4. By: Richard Blundell (University College London); Monica Costa Dias (Institute for Fiscal Studies and CEF-UP at the University of Porto); Costas Meghir (Cowles Foundation, Yale University); Jonathan Shaw (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University College London)
    Abstract: We estimate a dynamic model of employment, human capital accumulation - including education, and savings for women in the UK, exploiting tax and benefit reforms, and use it to analyze the effects of welfare policy. We find substantial elasticities for labor supply and particularly for lone mothers. Returns to experience, which are important in determining the longer-term effects of policy, increase with education, but experience mainly accumulates when in full-time employment. Tax credits are welfare improving in the UK and increase lone-mother labor supply, but the employment effects do not extend beyond the period of eligibility. Marginal increases in tax credits improve welfare more than equally costly increases in income support or tax cuts.
    Keywords: Female labor supply, Welfare reform, Tax credits, Education choice, Dynamic discrete choice models, Life cycle models
    JEL: H2 H3 J22 J24
    Date: 2013–04
  5. By: Allison Shertzer; Randall P. Walsh
    Abstract: Residential segregation by race grew sharply in the United States as black migrants from the South arrived in northern cities during the early twentieth century. The existing literature emphasizes discriminatory institutions as the driving force behind this rapid rise in segregation. Using newly assembled neighborhood-level data, we instead focus on the role of “flight” by whites, providing the first systematic evidence of the role that prewar population dynamics played in the emergence of the American ghetto. Leveraging exogenous changes in neighborhood racial composition, we show that white departures in response to black arrivals were quantitatively large and accelerated between 1900 and 1930. Our preferred estimates suggest that white flight was responsible for 34 percent of the increase in segregation over the 1910s and 50 percent over the 1920s. Our analysis suggests that segregation would likely have arisen in American cities even without the presence of discriminatory institutions as a direct consequence of the widespread and decentralized relocation decisions of white urban residents.
    JEL: J15 N32 R23
    Date: 2016–03
  6. By: Miller, Grant (Stanford University); Valente, Christine (University of Bristol)
    Abstract: There is longstanding debate in population policy about the relationship between modern contraception and abortion. Although theory predicts that they should be substitutes, the existing body of empirical evidence is difficult to interpret. What is required is a large‐scale intervention that alters the supply (or full price) of one or the other – and importantly, does so in isolation (reproductive health programs often bundle primary health care and family planning – and in some instances, abortion services). In this paper, we study Nepal's 2004 legalization of abortion provision and subsequent expansion of abortion services, an unusual and rapidly‐implemented policy meeting these requirements. Using four waves of rich individual‐level data representative of fertile‐age Nepalese women, we find robust evidence of substitution between modern contraception and abortion. This finding has important implications for public policy and foreign aid, suggesting that an effective strategy for reducing expensive and potentially unsafe abortions may be to expand the supply of modern contraceptives.
    Keywords: abortion, contraception, Nepal
    JEL: J13 N35
    Date: 2016–03
  7. By: Thomas Buser (University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands)
    Abstract: I study how gender differences in willingness to compete evolve over time in response to experience. Participants in a lab experiment perform the same real-effort task over several rounds. In each round, they have to choose between piece-rate remuneration and a winner-takes-all competition. At the end of each round, those who compete get feedback on the competition outcome. The main result is that women are much more likely than men to stop competing after a loss, which leads to the appearance of a significant gender gap in competitiveness even among those who are initially willing to compete. This gender effect is also present for high performers. In an additional experiment, I show that giving feedback to non-competers might further increase the gender gap in willingness to compete as men who initially choose not to compete react more strongly to positive feedback compared to women.
    Keywords: competitiveness; gender; feedback; career decisions; laboratory experiment
    JEL: C91 D03 J01 J16
    Date: 2016–03–14
  8. By: Yao, Yuxin (Tilburg University); Ohinata, Asako (University of Leicester); van Ours, Jan C. (Tilburg University)
    Abstract: This paper studies the educational consequences of language proficiency by investigating the relationship between dialect-speaking and academic performance of 5-6 year old children in the Netherlands. We find that dialect-speaking has a modestly negative effect on boys' language test scores. In addition, we study whether there are spillover effects of peers' dialect-speaking on test scores. We find no evidence for spillover effect of peers' dialect-speaking. The test scores of neither Dutch-speaking children nor dialect-speaking children are affected by the share of dialect-speaking peers in the classroom.
    Keywords: dialect-speaking, test scores, spillover effects, language, academic performance
    JEL: J24 I2
    Date: 2016–03

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