nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2016‒02‒17
six papers chosen by
Michele Battisti
ifo Institut

  1. Intrahousehold Bargaining, Domestic Violence and Child Health Outcomes in Ghana By Nuhu, Ahmed Salim
  2. Native-Immigrant Gaps in Educational and School-to-Work Transitions in the Second Generation: The Role of Gender and Ethnicity By Baert, Stijn; Heiland, Frank; Korenman, Sanders
  3. The Evolution of Gender Gaps in Industrialized Countries By Olivetti, Claudia; Petrongolo, Barbara
  4. Actual and perceived financial sophistication and wealth accumulation: The role of education and gender By Bannier, Christina E.; Neubert, Milena
  5. Inequality and Defined Benefit Pensions when Life Expectancy is Heterogeneous By Kemptner, Daniel; Haan, Peter; Prowse, Victoria
  6. Employment Adjustments around Childbirth By Pertold-Gebicka, Barbara; Pertold, Filip; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

  1. By: Nuhu, Ahmed Salim
    Abstract: I explore a unique exogenous instrument to examine how the intra-familial position of women influence health outcomes of their children using micro data from Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, 2008. Using the 2 SLS-IV estimation technique, I build a model of household bargaining and child health development with perceptions of women regarding wife-beating and marital rape in the existence of domestic violence laws, in Ghana. Even though the initial OLS estimates suggest that women’s participation in decisions regarding purchases of household consumption goods help to improve child health outcomes, the IV estimates reveal that the presence of endogeneity underestimates the impact of women’s bargaining power on child health outcomes. Our Hausman test for endogeneity also confirms that health development of children is mediated through domestic violence laws, which protect women from physical and sexual abuse in the household.
    Keywords: Intrahousehold Bargaining,Domestic Violence,Child Health Investment,Child BMI
    JEL: J12 J13
    Date: 2015–12–20
  2. By: Baert, Stijn (Ghent University); Heiland, Frank (Baruch College, City University of New York); Korenman, Sanders (Baruch College, City University of New York)
    Abstract: We study how native-immigrant (second generation) differences in educational trajectories and school-to-work transitions vary by gender. Using longitudinal Belgian data and adjusting for family background and educational sorting, we find that both male and female second-generation immigrants, especially Turks and Moroccans, lag natives in finishing secondary education and beginning tertiary education when schooling delay is taken into account, though the female gap is larger. The same is true for residual gaps in the transition to work: native males are 30% more likely than comparable Turkish males to be employed three months after leaving school, while the corresponding female gap is 60%. In addition, we study demographic behaviors (fertility, marriage and cohabitation) related to hypotheses that attribute educational and economic gaps to cultural differences between immigrants and natives.
    Keywords: educational attainment, school-to-work transitions, dynamic selection bias, ethnic minorities, gender differentials, economic sociology
    JEL: I24 J15 J16 J70 Z10 C35
    Date: 2014–12
  3. By: Olivetti, Claudia (Boston College); Petrongolo, Barbara (Queen Mary, University of London)
    Abstract: Women in developed economies have made major inroads in labor markets throughout the past century, but remaining gender differences in pay and employment seem remarkably persistent. This paper documents long-run trends in female employment, working hours and relative wages for a wide cross-section of developed economies. It reviews existing work on the factors driving gender convergence, and novel perspectives on remaining gender gaps. The paper finally emphasizes the interplay between gender trends and the evolution of the industry structure. Based on a shift-share decomposition, it shows that the growth in the service share can explain at least half of the overall variation in female hours, both over time and across countries.
    Keywords: female employment, gender gaps, demand and supply, industry structure
    JEL: E24 J16 J31
    Date: 2016–01
  4. By: Bannier, Christina E.; Neubert, Milena
    Abstract: This study examines the role of actual and perceived financial sophistication (i.e., financial literacy and confidence) for individuals' wealth accumulation. Using survey data from the German SAVE initiative, we find strong gender- and education-related differences in the distribution of the two variables and their effects on wealth: As financial literacy rises in formal education, whereas confidence increases in education for men but decreases for women, we observe that women become strongly underconfident with higher education, while men remain overconfident. Regarding wealth accumulation, we show that financial literacy has a positive effect that is stronger for women than for men and that is increasing (decreasing) in education for women (men). Confidence, however, supports only highly-educated men's wealth. When considering different channels for wealth accumulation, we observe that financial literacy is more important for current financial market participation, whereas confidence is more strongly associated with future-oriented financial planning. Overall, we demonstrate that highly-educated men's wealth levels benefit from their overconfidence via all financial decisions considered, but highly-educated women's financial planning suffers from their underconfidence. This may impair their wealth levels in old age.
    Keywords: financial literacy,financial sophistication,confidence,wealth,household finance,behavioral finance,gender,formal education
    JEL: D91 G11 D83 J26
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Kemptner, Daniel; Haan, Peter; Prowse, Victoria
    Abstract: In this paper, we analyze how life expectancy-driven redistribution of income through a defined pension benefit system impacts on inequality in annual consumption. Our analysis combines a methodology that quantifies life expectancy-driven redistribution through the pension system with a structural life-cycle model in which labor supply, retirement and consumption decisions respond to changes in the pension system. Based on the estimated model, we show that the German pension system induces a large regressive redistribution of life-time income, and this redistribution increases inequality in average annual consumption. Behavioral responses to the pension system matter for the results. Increasing progressivity in pension contributions or pension benefits only partially offsets the life expectancy-driven redistribution via the pension system.
    JEL: C61 D31 H55
    Date: 2015
  6. By: Pertold-Gebicka, Barbara (Charles University, Prague); Pertold, Filip (CERGE-EI); Datta Gupta, Nabanita (Aarhus University)
    Abstract: Using rich longitudinal register data from Denmark, we show that the allocation of mothers between the competitive private sector and the family-friendly public sector significantly changes around the birth of their first child. Specifically, mothers – post first childbirth – are increasingly switching from the private to the public sector and are also less likely to leave the public sector. The incidence of switching sectors can be partly explained by occupational characteristics, such as the convexity of pay and time pressure. In line with the compensating wage differential theory, we observe that the switch into the public sector is accompanied with a wage drop.
    Keywords: motherhood, employment, sector switching, occupational characteristics
    JEL: J13 J16 J24
    Date: 2016–01

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