nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2015‒08‒25
five papers chosen by
Michele Battisti
ifo Institut

  1. Pension Wealth and Maternal Employment: Evidence from a Reform of the German Child Care Pension Benefit By Andreas Thiemann
  2. Crime Victimisation and Subjective Well-Being: Panel Evidence from Australia By Mahuteau, Stéphane; Zhu, Rong
  3. Migration and families left behind By Sylvie Démurger
  4. Explaining the Gender Wage Gap: Estimates from a Dynamic Model of Job Changes and Hours Changes By Liu, Kai
  5. The Effects of Two Influential Early Childhood Interventions on Health and Healthy Behaviors By Conti, Gabriella; Heckman, James J.; Pinto, Rodrigo

  1. By: Andreas Thiemann
    Abstract: This paper uses administrative data to investigate how a change in pension wealth affects a mother’s employment decision after child birth. I exploit the extension of the child care pension benefit in 1992 as a natural experiment in a regression discontinuity design to estimate short- and medium-run employment effects. In comparison to most family benefits, the child care pension benefit is accumulated upon child birth but only becomes effective on the verge of retirement. Hence, the employment response depends on how a mother discounts future pension benefits. The results suggest that the change in pension wealth does not affect maternal employment, which is not in line with a forward looking rational behavior. Therefore, the child care pension benefit increases maternal old-age income without causing negative employment reactions.
    Keywords: Natural experiment, female labor supply, pension benefit
    JEL: J13 H55 D19
    Date: 2015
  2. By: Mahuteau, Stéphane (NILS, Flinders University); Zhu, Rong (NILS, Flinders University)
    Abstract: This paper estimates the effect of physical violence and property crimes on subjective well-being in Australia. Our methodology improves on previous contributions by (i) controlling for the endogeneity of victimisation and (ii) analysing the heterogeneous effect of victimisation along the whole distribution of well-being. Using fixed effects panel estimation, we find that both types of crimes reduce reported well-being to a large extent, with physical violence exerting a larger average effect than property crimes. Furthermore, using recently developed panel data quantile regression model with fixed effects, we show that the negative effects of both crimes are highly heterogeneous, with a monotonic decrease over the distribution of subjective well-being.
    Keywords: victimisation, subjective well-being, panel quantile regression
    JEL: C21 I31
    Date: 2015–08
  3. By: Sylvie Démurger (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - PRES Université de Lyon - CNRS)
    Abstract: The effect of a family member’s migration on those who stay behind can be either positive or negative, depending on individual circumstances. Although remittances are a potentially important means of easing family budget constraints and alleviating poverty, the most vulnerable populations may be hurt by a family member’s migration. Policymakers need to consider the specific circumstances behind the migration and of the family members in the home country. Support systems for these families may need to be bolstered to help them cope with any detrimental impacts of migration, especially its effect on education and human capital accumulation
    Date: 2015
  4. By: Liu, Kai (Norwegian School of Economics)
    Abstract: I address the causes of the gender wage gap with a new dynamic model of wage, hours, and job changes that permits me to decompose the gap into a portion due to gender differences in preferences for hours of work and in constraints. The dynamic model allows the differences in constraints to reflect possible gender differences in job arrival rates, job destruction rates, the mean and variance of the wage offer distribution, and the wage cost of part-time work. The model is estimated using the 1996 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation. I find that the preference for part-time work increases with marriage and number of children among women but not among men. These demographic factors explain a sizable fraction of the gender gap in employment, but they explain no more than 6 percent of the gender wage gap. Differences in constraints, mainly in the form of the mean offered wages and rates of job arrival and destruction, explain most of the gender wage gap. Policy simulation results suggest that, relative to reducing the wage cost of part-time work, providing additional employment protection to part-time jobs is more effective in reducing the gender wage gap.
    Keywords: gender gap, job mobility, part-time work
    JEL: D91 J31 J16 J63
    Date: 2015–08
  5. By: Conti, Gabriella (University College London); Heckman, James J. (University of Chicago); Pinto, Rodrigo (University of California, Los Angeles)
    Abstract: This paper examines the long-term impacts on health and healthy behaviors of two of the oldest and most widely cited U.S. early childhood interventions evaluated by the method of randomization with long-term follow-up: the Perry Preschool Project (PPP) and the Carolina Abecedarian Project (ABC). There are pronounced gender effects strongly favoring boys, although there are also effects for girls. Dynamic mediation analyses show a significant role played by improved childhood traits, above and beyond the effects of experimentally enhanced adult socioeconomic status. These results show the potential of early life interventions for promoting health.
    Keywords: health, early childhood intervention, social experiment, randomized trial, Abecedarian Project, Perry Preschool Project
    JEL: C12 C93 I12 I13 J13 J24
    Date: 2015–08

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