nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2015‒04‒11
five papers chosen by
Michele Battisti
ifo Institut

  1. Gender Gaps in the UK Labour Market: jobs, pay and family-friendly policies By Ghazala Azmat
  2. An Application of Partial Least Squares to the Construction of the Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) and the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) By Jisu Yoon; Stephan Klasen
  3. Gender Differences in the Effect of Residential Segregation on Workplace Segregation among Newly Arrived Immigrants By Tammaru, Tiit; Strömgren, Magnus; van Ham, Maarten; Danzer, Alexander M.
  4. Fertility Shocks and Equilibrium Marriage-Rate Dynamics: Lessons from World War 1 in France By Knowles, John; Vandenbroucke, Guillaume
  5. Gender roles and medical progress By Albanesi, Stefania; Olivetti, Claudia

  1. By: Ghazala Azmat
    Abstract: Differences in the labour market experiences of men and women have fallen over the last 20 years, but there are still sizeable 'gender gaps' in employment and wages. Certain factors help to explain a good part of gender gaps, including caring for young children, occupational choice and part-time work (which suffers a pay penalty). Recent and proposed policy changes have focused on supporting family-friendly employment for both men and women, including improvements in childcare provision, improved paternity leave and greater transparency on wage gaps within firms. It is unclear, however, if these policies will be effective in helping to close the gender gaps.
    Keywords: gender gap, wages, employment, government policy, industrial relations, #ElectionEconomics
    Date: 2015–04
  2. By: Jisu Yoon (Georg-August-University Göttingen); Stephan Klasen (Georg-August-University Göttingen)
    Abstract: In this paper the Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) is constructed with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares (PLS). Using the SIGI, we test the effects of social institutions related to gender inequality on several development outcomes, such as female education, fertility, child mortality and corruption, controlling for relevant determinants. As the measure of corruption we use the Corruption Perception Index (CPI), considering alternative weighting procedures using PCA and PLS. We find that gender inequality in social institutions has significant effect on fertility and corruption regardless of the weighting procedure, while for female education and child mortality only the SIGI based on PLS generates significant results.
    Keywords: Social Institutions and Gender Index; SIGI; Corruption Perception Index; CPI; Principal Component Analysis; PCA; Partial Least Squares; PLS; non-metric variables
    JEL: C43 J16 B54 D73
    Date: 2015–03–27
  3. By: Tammaru, Tiit (University of Tartu); Strömgren, Magnus (Umeå University); van Ham, Maarten (Delft University of Technology); Danzer, Alexander M. (University of Munich)
    Abstract: Contemporary cities are becoming more and more diverse in population as a result of immigration. Research also shows that within cities residential neighborhoods are becoming ethnically more diverse, but that residential segregation has remained persistently high. High levels of segregation are often seen as negative, preventing integration of immigrants in their host society and having a negative impact on people's lives. Segregation research often focuses on residential neighborhoods, but ignores the fact that a lot of interaction also takes place in other spheres of life, such as the workplace. This paper examines the role of residential segregation in workplace segregation among recently arrived immigrants. By using unique longitudinal register data from Sweden, we show that the role of residential segregation in workplace segregation differs in an important way for immigrant men and immigrant women.
    Keywords: immigrants, residential segregation, workplace segregation, longitudinal analysis, Sweden
    JEL: J15 J61 R23
    Date: 2015–03
  4. By: Knowles, John (Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis); Vandenbroucke, Guillaume (Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis)
    Abstract: Low sex ratios are often equated with unfavorable marriage prospects for women, but in France after World War 1, the marriage probability of single females rose 50%, despite a massive drop in the male/female ratio. We conjecture that the war-time birth-rate bust induced an abnormal postwar abundance of singles with relatively high marriage propensities. We compute the equilibrium response, in a life-cycle matching model, of marriage hazards to war-time fertility and male-mortality shocks. Our results implicate two powerful forces: an abnormal abundance of marriageable men, and increased gains from marriage due to post-war pro-natalism.
    Keywords: Family Economics; Household Formation; Marriage; Fertility.
    JEL: D10 E13 J12 J13 O11
    Date: 2015–03–01
  5. By: Albanesi, Stefania (Federal Reserve Bank of New York); Olivetti, Claudia
    Abstract: Maternal mortality was the second-leading cause of death for women in childbearing years up until the mid-1930s in the United States. For each death, twenty times as many mothers were estimated to suffer pregnancy-related conditions, often leading to severe and prolonged disablement. Poor maternal health made it particularly hard for mothers to engage in market work. Between 1930 and 1960, there was a remarkable reduction in maternal mortality and morbidity, thanks to medical advances. We argue that these medical advances, by enabling women to reconcile work and motherhood, were essential for the joint rise in married women’s labor force participation and fertility over this period. We also show that the diffusion of infant formula played an important auxiliary role.
    Keywords: maternal health; labor force participation
    JEL: I00 J00 J19 J21
    Date: 2015–03–01

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