nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2015‒04‒02
ten papers chosen by
Michele Battisti
ifo Institut

  1. Promoting integration of immigrants. Effects of free child care on child enrollment and parental employment By Nina Drange; Kjetil Telle
  2. Correlation, Consumption, Confusion, or Constraints: Why do Poor Children Perform so Poorly? By Elizabeth Caucutt; Lance Lochner; Youngmin Park
  3. Parental leave and the glass ceiling in Sweden By Albrecht, James; Skogman Thoursie, Peter; Vroman, Susan
  4. Can a cash transfer to families change fertility behaviour? By Synøve N. Andersen; Nina Drange; Trude Lappegård
  5. Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health in Burkina Faso By Rafael Cortez; Diana Bowser; Meaghen Quinlan-Davisonson
  6. Body Weight and Academic Performance: Gender and Peer Effects By BARONE, Adriana; NESE, Annamaria
  7. Fair Play:: More Equal Laws Boost Female Labor Force Participation By Christian Gonzales; Sonali Jain-Chandra; Kalpana Kochhar; Monique Newiak
  8. Electrification and Educational Outcomes in Rural Peru By Dasso, Rosamaría; Fernandez, Fernando; Nopo, Hugo
  9. Household Migration and Child Educational Attainment: The Case of Uganda By Ferrone, Lucia; Giannelli, Gianna Claudia
  10. The Winner Takes It All: Internal Migration, Education and Wages in Ethiopia By Blunch, Niels-Hugo; Laderchi, Caterina Cruggeri

  1. By: Nina Drange; Kjetil Telle (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: Proficiency in the language spoken by the majority population may be crucial for the cognitive development of children from immigrant families. High-quality child care is believed to promote such language skills, and it is thus of concern that children from immigrant families are underrepresented in formal child care across OECD countries. How can we increase their participation, and can such participation improve family integration? We study an intervention in some districts of Oslo where children aged four and five were eligible for twenty hours of free childcare weekly. Taking advantage of the intervention being available in some city districts and not in others, we estimate the effect of the intervention on the enrollment of children and on their parents' employment and education, using outcomes measured for the same family before and after the child's age of eligibility. We find that the intervention increased the participation for children from immigrant families by 15 percent. However, we do not find support for effects on parental employment or education. The performance in tests at school entry (age six) for children from immigrant families in city districts with free child care is better than that of similar children in comparison districts. Overall, our results suggest that subsidizing center based child care can improve the cognitive development of children from immigrant families.
    Keywords: child care; education; immigrant children; integration; assimilation
    JEL: J13 J15 H52 I28
    Date: 2015–02
  2. By: Elizabeth Caucutt (Western University Canada); Lance Lochner (University of Western Ontario); Youngmin Park (University of Western Ontario)
    Abstract: The economic and social mobility of a generation may be largely determined by the time it enters school given early developing and persistent gaps in child achievement by family income and the importance of adolescent skill levels for educational attainment and lifetime earnings. After providing new evidence of important differences in early child investments by family income, we study four leading mechanisms thought to explain these gaps: an intergenerational correlation in ability, a consumption value of investment, information frictions, and credit constraints. In order to better determine which of these mechanisms influence family investments in children, we evaluate the extent to which these mechanisms also explain other important stylized facts related to the marginal returns on investments and the effects of parental income on child investments and skills.
    Keywords: social mobility, achievement gap, family investments
    JEL: J60 I00 E24
    Date: 2015–03
  3. By: Albrecht, James (Department of Economics, Georgetown University); Skogman Thoursie, Peter (Department of Economics, Stockholm University); Vroman, Susan (Department of Economics, Georgetown University)
    Abstract: In this paper, we update and extend “Is There a Glass Ceiling in Sweden?” (Albrecht et al. 2003) by documenting the extent to which the gender log wage gap across the distribution in Sweden has changed over the period 1998-2008. We then examine the Swedish glass ceiling in 2008 in more detail by documenting how it differs for white-collar versus blue-collar workers and for private- versus public-sector workers. We also examine when in the life cycle the glass ceiling effect arises and how this effect develops around the birth of the first child. Finally, we investigate the possible connection between the glass ceiling and the parental leave system in Sweden by linking wage data with data on parental leave from different Swedish registers.
    Keywords: Gender gap; parental leave; quantile regression
    JEL: J16 J31 J71
    Date: 2015–03–04
  4. By: Synøve N. Andersen; Nina Drange; Trude Lappegård (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: This paper assesses the relationship between cash transfers to families and subsequent childbearing. We take advantage of a cash-for-care (CFC) policy introduced in Norway in 1998, and compare the fertility behaviour of eligible and ineligible mothers over a four year period. Contrary to theoretical expectations, the results show that CFC eligible mothers had a slower progression to both second and third births, and short term fertility is hence lower in this group. The patterns differ somewhat between different groups of mothers, and there seems to be a polarisation between nonemployed mothers and mothers without upper secondary education, on one hand, and employed mothers and mothers with upper secondary and higher education, on the other. We suggest that this pattern may be driven by an interaction between the CFC benefit and the Norwegian parental leave scheme.
    Keywords: Fertility; Family policy; Cash for care
    JEL: J10 J13 J18
    Date: 2015–02
  5. By: Rafael Cortez; Diana Bowser; Meaghen Quinlan-Davisonson
    Abstract: Today?s adolescents and youth face substantial physical, social, legal, and economic barriers to meeting their SRH potential. Key factors underlying these issues are a lack of adolescent SRH (ASRH) policies and access to accessible, affordable, and appropriate health services. The impact that these factors have on adolescent health and development is clearly seen in Burkina Faso. Burkinabè adolescent girls face high adolescent fertility rates, early and forced marriage, an increased risk of maternal mortality, and a high unmet need for contraception, among others. Adding to this issue is a lack of access to education, basic health information, and SRH services, contributing to a lack of awareness and knowledge about SRH and traditional and harmful gender stereotypes. The objectives of the study were to understand the impact that structural and proximal determinants have on access to ASRH services and health outcomes; and the impact that recently implemented policies and programs have on ASRH.
    Keywords: abortion, abortion rates, access to education, access to health, access to health care, ADOLESCENT, adolescent boys, adolescent fertility, adolescent girls, adolescent ... See More + health, adolescent maternal mortality, adolescents, age of marriage, antenatal care, average age, Basic Education, births, cancer, care strategies, childbirth, Clandestine Abortion, community interventions, complications, contraceptive method, contraceptive use, deaths, discrimination, domestic violence, early marriage, early marriages, economic growth, educational achievement, Emergency Obstetric Care, employment opportunities, equal participation, equal rights, equitable access, families, family planning, Female, Female genital cutting, females, fertility rate, fertility rates, fewer children, FGC, financial constraints, first marriage, forced marriage, forced marriages, formal education, gender, gender approach, gender equality, gender equity, gender gap, gender gap in primary, GENDER NORMS, gender parity, Gender Policy, gender stereotypes, gender-based violence, harmful practices, health care, health care services, health facilities, health facility, health information, health insurance, health interventions, health outcomes, health policies, Health Policy, health services, HIV, HIV/AIDS, hospital, human rights, human rights violation, Illegal abortions, infant, infant mortality, intimate partner, labour force, labour force participation, lack of awareness, level of education, levels of knowledge, literacy rates, MARITAL STATUS, Married women, maternal complications, maternal health, maternal morbidity, maternal mortality, Medicine, mental health, modern contraception, National Gender Policy, National Health, National Policy, need for family planning, neonatal care, Nutrition, obstetric care, older age groups, older women, participation in decision, physical abuse, Population Knowledge, pregnancy, pregnancy prevention, primary education, primary health care, primary school, promotion of gender equality, quality of services, rape, Reproduction, REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH, Risk Behaviors, rural areas, school attendance, School Children, secondary school, SEXUAL ACTIVITY, Sexual Behavior, sexual education, sexual harassment, sexual violence, skilled birth attendance, social norms, Social Science, STIs, UNESCO, UNFPA, United Nations, United States Agency for International Development, unplanned pregnancies, USAID, use of Condoms, use of health facilities, Vocational Training, woman, women in society, Young Adolescents, young age, young people, young women, younger women, youth
    Date: 2015–03
  6. By: BARONE, Adriana (CELPE - Centre of Labour Economics and Economic Policy, University of Salerno - Italy); NESE, Annamaria (CELPE - Centre of Labour Economics and Economic Policy, University of Salerno - Italy)
    Abstract: Taking into account the economic consequences of obesity highlighted in literature (Cawley, 2004), this study investigates the association between overweight and skill attainment at the university of Salerno in Italy, with particular focus on gender differences. Our findings indicate a significant negative relationship between body mass index and academic achievement only for female students thus suggesting that, during late adolescence, physicality plays different roles according to gender. We also investigated gender differences in relation to psychological factors and we find that i)only females consider "being attractive" as an important factor for their well-being and ii) peers' behavior matters on individual eating habits only when female students are considered
    Keywords: Human Capital; Body weight; Educational Economics; Microeconometrics
    JEL: C25 D01 I12 I21 J24
    Date: 2014–12–30
  7. By: Christian Gonzales; Sonali Jain-Chandra; Kalpana Kochhar; Monique Newiak
    Abstract: This Staff Discussion Note examines the effect of gender-based legal restrictions and other policy choices and demographic characteristics on female labor force participation. Drawing on a large and novel panel data set of gender-related legal restrictions, the study finds that restrictions on women’s rights to inheritance and property, as well as legal impediments to undertaking economic activities such as opening a bank account or freely pursuing a profession, are strongly associated with larger gender gaps in labor force participation. These factors have a significant additional impact on female labor force participation over and above the effects of demographic characteristics and policies. In many cases, the gender gaps caused by these restrictions also have macro-critical effects in terms of an impact on GDP. The results from this study suggest that it would be beneficial to level the playing field by removing obstacles that prevent women from becoming economically active if they choose to do so. In recommending equal opportunities, however, this study does not intend to render a judgment of countries’ broadly accepted cultural and religious norms.
    Keywords: Labor force participation;Women;Gender equality;Labor markets;Labor market reforms;Family economic aspects;Cross country analysis;
    Date: 2015–02–23
  8. By: Dasso, Rosamaría (IFPRI, International Food Policy Research Institute); Fernandez, Fernando (Universitat Pompeu Fabra); Nopo, Hugo (Inter-American Development Bank)
    Abstract: We study the effects of electrification on educational outcomes in Peru by taking advantage of a program that rapidly increased electricity coverage in rural areas. Using household survey panel data from 2007-2010, we document that: i) girls living in treated districts are more likely to be enrolled in school, and this effect is larger among younger girls; ii) this positive effect on female enrollment does not translate into higher attendance rates; iii) households in treated areas spend more money on younger girls' education. In addition, we use school-level panel data from 2007-2012 on Math and Reading test scores to show that treatment is associated with a reduction in learning. But, among treated schools, longer treatment exposure increases scores in Reading for boys and girls; and improves performance in Math, only among boys. Finally, our estimates are robust to controlling for other confounding interventions.
    Keywords: education, rural electrification, Peru
    JEL: I25 O13 O15
    Date: 2015–03
  9. By: Ferrone, Lucia (UNICEF); Giannelli, Gianna Claudia (University of Florence)
    Abstract: In many Sub-Saharan African countries, a large number of people migrate internally or abroad because of demographic, economic and political factors. This pronounced mobility is likely to have consequences for child education, which is still a matter of concern in the region. We study this issue for Uganda, investigating whether the migration of household members affects child primary education and in what direction. Using the Uganda National Panel Survey for 2005, 2009, 2010 and 2011, we estimate conditional fixed effects logit models of school attendance and primary school completion. We find that migration of children has a significant positive impact on child school attendance rates while that of adults has a significantly negative effect, and that remittances have no influence. These findings suggest that migration of children is indeed beneficial, since it may contribute to matching the demand and supply of schooling. The absence of adults, instead, has controversial effects when children are left behind. In fact, lack of supervision and children working substituting adults in their tasks might reduce the rate of school attendance. However, the migration of neither children nor adults seem to increase the rate of primary school completion, evidence that points to the problem of the low quality of primary education in developing countries.
    Keywords: migration, schooling, panel data models with fixed effects, Uganda
    JEL: I25 J13 J61 O15
    Date: 2015–03
  10. By: Blunch, Niels-Hugo (Washington and Lee University); Laderchi, Caterina Cruggeri (World Bank)
    Abstract: Previous studies of migration have mainly examined international dynamics. Yet, internal migration is an important issue, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using the 2001 Ethiopia Child Labor Survey, a nationally representative household survey, this paper examines internal migration in Ethiopia, focusing on the linkages among internal migration, education and wages. The results suggest that migrants are better educated and obtain higher wages than non-migrants, controlling for other factors (including education), and also obtain higher returns to their education. In other words, the more educated reap higher returns from their education as a main effect, as well as higher returns to their education from migration than non-migrants – that is, "the winner takes it all." This result should be of concern to policy makers in Ethiopia and elsewhere – especially in Sub-Saharan Africa – since individuals with low levels of education already are in a vulnerable group. The study therefore also discusses the policy implications of these results.
    Keywords: internal migration, wages, education, Ethiopia
    JEL: J24 J31 O15
    Date: 2015–03

This nep-dem issue is ©2015 by Michele Battisti. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.