nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2015‒02‒28
nine papers chosen by
Michele Battisti
ifo Institut

  1. Changing labour market opportunities for young people in Italy and the role of the family of origin By Gabriella Berloffa ; Francesca Modena ; Paola Villa
  2. Age, Cohort and Co-Authorship By Hamermesh, Daniel S.
  3. Technology and the Changing Family: A Unified Model of marriage, Divorce, Educational Attainment and Married Female Labor-Force Participation By Jeremy Greenwood ; Nezih Guner ; Georgi Kocharkov ; Cezar Santos
  4. Socioeconomic Differences in Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health: Marriage By Rafael Cortez ; Jennifer Yarger ; Mara Decker ; Claire Brindis
  5. Estimating the Production Function for Human Capital: Results from a Randomized Control Trial in Colombia By Attanasio, Orazio ; Cattan, Sarah ; Fitzsimons, Emla ; Meghir, Costas ; Rubio-Codina, Marta
  6. Does Retirement Make you Happy? A Simultaneous Equations Approach By Raquel Fonseca ; Arie Kapteyn ; Jinkook Lee ; Gema Zamarro
  7. From the cradle to the grave : the effect of family background on the career path of italian men By Michele Raitano ; Francesco Vona
  8. What is your couple type? Gender ideology, housework sharing and babies By Arnstein Aassve ; Giulia Fuochi ; Letizia Mencarini ; Daria Mendola
  9. Does preschool boost the development of minority children? The case of Roma children By Felfe, Christina ; Huber, Martin

  1. By: Gabriella Berloffa (University of Trento ); Francesca Modena (Bank of Italy ); Paola Villa (University of Trento )
    Abstract: This paper considers the increased incidence of insecure job conditions for young individuals entering the Italian labour market and their chances of moving to a more secure job after a reasonable period of time. In particular, we investigate empirically whether and how long-term changes in labour market institutions and conditions have altered the role of the family of origin in both labour market entry and subsequent transitions. We use the Italian Households Longitudinal Study (Ilfi) and show that employment opportunities have changed significantly in Italy over the past three decades (from the late 1970s to the early 2000s). For an increasing share of young adults precariousness extends over a fairly long period of their working life. The family of origin reduced the probability of insecurity both in the early 1980s and during the 1990s, but in a different way: in the early 1980s, it had an effect in the entry year, but not subsequently; after the implementation of the Treu reform, its effect appeared only in the years following that of entry. Our overall results suggest that the rapid expansion of insecure contractual arrangements in the 1990s-early 2000s has increased the difficulty of transitioning to a “better” job condition (i.e. secure employment). This has enhanced the role of the family of origin in overcoming the difficulty and generated new inequalities among young Italians.
    Keywords: youth occupational outcomes, precarious employment, family of origin, Italy
    JEL: D6 J2
    Date: 2015–01
  2. By: Hamermesh, Daniel S. (University of Texas at Austin, Royal Holloway )
    Abstract: The previously documented trend toward more co- and multi-authored research in economics is partly (perhaps 20 percent) due to different research styles of scholars in different birth cohorts (of different ages). Most of the trend reflects profession-wide changes in research style. Older scholars show greater variation in their research styles than younger ones, who use similar numbers of co-authors in each published paper; but there are no differences across cohorts in scholars' willingness to work with different coauthors. There are only small gender differences in the impacts of age on numbers of coauthors, but substantial differences on choice of coauthors.
    Keywords: sociology of economics, bibliometrics, rewards in economics
    JEL: A11 J01 B31
    Date: 2015–02
  3. By: Jeremy Greenwood (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 ); Nezih Guner (ICREA-MOVE, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona and Barcelona GSE, Spain ); Georgi Kocharkov (Department of Economics, University of Konstanz, Germany ); Cezar Santos (Getulio Vargas Foundation )
    Abstract: Marriage has declined since 1960, with the drop being bigger for non-college educated individuals versus college educated ones. Divorce has increased, more so for the non-college educated. Additionally, positive assortative mating has risen. Income inequality among households has also widened. A unified model of marriage, divorce, educational attainment and married female labor-force participation is developed and estimated to fit the postwar U.S. data. Two underlying driving forces are considered: technological progress in the household sector and shifts in the wage structure. The analysis emphasizes the joint role that educational attainment, married female labor-force participation, and assortative mating play in determining income inequality.
    Keywords: Assortative mating, education, married female labor supply, household production, marriage and divorce, inequality
    JEL: E24 D31 J13 J17 J62
  4. By: Rafael Cortez ; Jennifer Yarger ; Mara Decker ; Claire Brindis
    Abstract: Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health (ASRH) is one of five areas of focus of the World Bank's Reproductive Health Action Plan 2010-2015 (RHAP), which recognizes the importance of addressing ASRH as a development issue with important implications for poverty reduction. Delaying childbearing and preventing unintended pregnancies during adolescence has been shown to schooling, future employment, and earnings (Greene & Merrick, 2005). Early marriage often marks the beginning of exposure to the risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Research has shown that adolescent marriage is associated with unplanned pregnancy, rapid repeat childbirth, inadequate use of maternal health services, and poor birth outcomes, among other negative maternal and child health outcomes (Godha, Hotchkiss, and Gage, 2013; Raj & Boehmer, 2013; Santhya, 2011). Furthermore, research in Ethiopia has found that adolescent females who marry before the age of 15 are at higher risk of intimate partner violence and coercive sex than those who marry between ages 15-18 (Erulkar, 2013). At the 65th World Health Assembly, representatives agreed that early marriage is a violation of the rights of children and adolescents. Early marriage is illegal in most of the places where it occurs. It limits young girls' autonomy, knowledge, resources, and decision-making power (World Bank, 2014). Adolescent marriage is also much more likely to affect females than males: in the developing world, 16 percent of females are married in comparison to 3 percent of males (UNFPA, 2013).
    Keywords: access to health services, adolescence, ADOLESCENT, adolescent females, adolescent fertility, Adolescent Health, Adolescent Pregnancy, adolescent women, adolescents, ... See More + dulthood, aged, birth outcomes, child health, Child Marriage, childbearing, childbirth, coercive sex, Developing Countries, early adolescent, Early marriage, educational attainment, empowerment, families, family planning, female, fertility, fertility rates, gender, Girl Child, Gynecology, HIV, implications for poverty reduction, Infant, Infant Mortality, infections, International Center for Research on Women, intimate partner, laws, levels of fertility, life expectancy, lower fertility, maternal health, maternal mortality, maternal mortality rates, Nutrition, policy dialogue, poor health, Population Knowledge, primary education, provision of services, REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH, Reproductive Health Outcomes, rights of children, risk of pregnancy, rural areas, rural residence, Service Utilization, sex, sexually transmitted infections, SOCIOECONOMIC DIFFERENCES, socioeconomic status, STIs, UNFPA, unintended pregnancies, unplanned pregnancy, urban areas, use of maternal health services, violence, Violence Against Women, vulnerable populations, will, young girls, Young Women
    Date: 2015–01
  5. By: Attanasio, Orazio (University College London ); Cattan, Sarah (Institute for Fiscal Studies, London ); Fitzsimons, Emla (University College London ); Meghir, Costas (Yale University ); Rubio-Codina, Marta (Institute for Fiscal Studies, London )
    Abstract: We examine the channels through which a randomized early childhood intervention in Colombia led to significant gains in cognitive and socio-emotional skills among a sample of disadvantaged children. We estimate production functions for cognitive and socio-emotional skills as a function of maternal skills and child's past skills, as well as material and time investments that are treated as endogenous. The effects of the program can be fully explained by increases in parental investments, which have strong effects on outcomes and are complementary to both maternal skills and child's past skills.
    Keywords: early childhood development, human capital, poverty alleviation, nonlinear factor models
    JEL: J13 J24 I24 I25 I32 O15
    Date: 2015–02
  6. By: Raquel Fonseca (Université du Québec à Montréal ); Arie Kapteyn (University of Southern California ); Jinkook Lee (University of Southern California ); Gema Zamarro (University of Southern California )
    Abstract: Continued improvements in life expectancy and fiscal insolvency of public pensions have led to an increase in pension entitlement ages in several countries, but its consequences for subjective well-being are largely unknown. Financial consequences of retirement complicate the estimation of effects of retirement on subjective well-being as financial circumstances may influence subjective well-being, and therefore, the effects of retirement are likely to be confounded by the change in income. At the same time, unobservable determinants of income are probably related with unobservable determinants of subjective wellbeing, making income possibly endogenous if used as control in subjective wellbeing regressions. To address these issues, we estimate a simultaneous model of retirement, income, and subjective well-being while accounting for time effects and unobserved individual effects. Public pension arrangements (replacement rates, eligibility rules for early and full retirement) serve as instrumental variables. We use data from HRS and SHARE for the period 2004-2010. We find that depressive symptoms are negatively related to retirement while life satisfaction is positively related. Remarkably, income does not seem to have a significant effect on depression or life satisfaction. This is in contrast with the correlations in the raw data that show significant relations between income and depression and life satisfaction. This suggests that accounting for the endogeneity of income in equations explaining depression or life satisfaction is important.
    Date: 2014–09
  7. By: Michele Raitano (Sapienza University of Rome ); Francesco Vona (OFCE )
    Abstract: This paper investigates the influence of parental education on the returns to experience of Italian men using a new longitudinal dataset that contains detailed information on individual working histories. Our favourite panel estimates indicate that an additional year of parental education increases sons' weekly wages by 11.7% after twenty years of experience and that 71% of this effect emerges during the career. We show that this effect holds irrespective of individual abilities, and it appears the result of both a glass ceiling effect, due to the complementarity between parental education and son’s abilities, and a parachute effect, associated with family labour market connections.
    Keywords: intergenerational inequality; parental education; experience -earnings profiles
    JEL: J62 J24 J31
    Date: 2015–02
  8. By: Arnstein Aassve ; Giulia Fuochi ; Letizia Mencarini ; Daria Mendola
    Abstract: BACKGROUND It is increasingly acknowledged that not only gender equality, but also gender ideology plays a role in explaining fertility in advanced societies. In a micro perspective, the potential mismatch between gender equality (i.e. the actual sharing taking place in a couple) and gender ideology (i.e. gender equality in attitudes, as proxy for gender equity), may drive childbearing decisions. OBJECTIVE This paper assesses the impact of consistency between gender equality in attitudes and equality in the division of household labour on the likelihood of having another child, for different parities. METHODS Relying on two-wave panel data of the Bulgarian, French, Czech, Hungarian and Lithuanian Generations and Gender Surveys, we build a couple typology defined over gender attitudes and housework sharing.The typology identifies four types of couples: 1) gender unequal attitudes and gender unequal housework sharing; 2) gender equal attitudes and gender unequal housework sharing; 3) gender unequal attitudes and gender equal housework sharing; 4) gender equal attitudes and gender equal housework sharing. The couple types enter into a logistic regression model on childbirth. RESULTS The impact of the typology varies with parity and gender: taking as reference category the case of gender equal attitudes and gender equal division of housework, the effect of all the other couple types on a new childbirth is strong and negative for the second child and female respondents. CONCLUSIONS The consistency between gender equality in attitudes and the actual equality in housework sharing is only favourable for childbearing as long as there is gender equality in both the dimensions.
    Keywords: Fertility, gender equity, gender equality, gender couple typology, GGS survey
    JEL: J13 J12 J16
    Date: 2014
  9. By: Felfe, Christina ; Huber, Martin
    Abstract: Does universal preschool constitute an effective policy tool to promote the development and integration of children from minority groups? In the light of rising cross border migration and increasing ethnic variation in many developed countries, we address this question for the children of the Roma - the largest and most disadvantaged minority in Europe. To tackle the issue of non-random selection into preschool, we exploit variation in the individual distance to the nearest preschool facility. Non-parametric instrumental variable estimations reveal significant short-term gains in terms of children's verbal and analytical skills. Preschool attendance also increases the prevalence of vaccinations, but has no effect on other health outcomes. Overall, it also does not seem to enhance integration measured by language proficiency and peer relations, at least not in the short-run.
    Keywords: universal child care; child development; non-parametric instrumental variable estimation
    JEL: C14 C21 C26 I10 I21 J13
    Date: 2015–02–24

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