nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2015‒02‒22
eight papers chosen by
Michele Battisti
ifo Institut

  1. Family Decision-Making on International Migration By Nikolka, Till; Poutvaara, Panu
  2. Family Planning: The Hidden Need of Married Adolescents in Nepal By Ana Milena Aguilar; Rafael Cortez
  3. Technology and the Changing Family: A Unified Model of Marriage, Divorce, Educational Attainment and Married Female Labor-Force Participation By Greenwood, Jeremy; Guner, Nezih; Kocharkov, Georgi; Santos, Cezar
  4. Age, Cohort and Co-Authorship By Daniel S. Hamermesh
  5. How Inequalities Develop through Childhood: Life course evidence from the Young Lives cohort study By Paul Dornan; Martin Woodhead; UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre
  6. Birthright citizenship and education - Do immigrant children need a passport to thrive? By Sajons, Christoph; Clots-Figueras, Irma
  7. Race & Gender Differences in the Experience of Earnings Inequality in the US from 1995 to 2010 By Markus P. A. Schneider
  8. Effective Age of Retirement: Innovative Methodology and Recent Experience By Maxime Comeau; Denis Latulippe

  1. By: Nikolka, Till; Poutvaara, Panu
    Abstract: We use a unique survey of Danes who have emigrated between 1987 and 2002 to study intra-family decision-making on international migration. Our survey reached 582 respondents with a Danish partner who was the same as before emigration. We model family decision-making in a bargaining framework and derive comparative statics to test with our data. Empirically, we find that family migration decisions are usually a shared preference, but that they are often driven to a larger extent by the male preference, most pronouncedly if the female is not college educated. Moreover, an increase in male wages goes along with relatively stronger male preferences towards joint emigration, which is in line with our theory.
    JEL: F22 J12 D13
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Ana Milena Aguilar; Rafael Cortez
    Abstract: In Nepal, both early marriage and motherhood still place adolescents and their children at a great disadvantage. In 2011, one-third of girls aged 15-19 were already married. About 60 percent of them were pregnant or had at least one child, and one in ten had two living children (Nepal Demographic Health Survey, 2011). This brief aims to understand why married adolescents in Nepal have low contraceptive use and a high unmet need for family planning, providing policy recommendations based on a literature review, interviews with key-informants, and a comprehensive analysis of secondary data from household surveys (NDHS 2006-2011). Given that early childbearing in Nepal still occurs primarily within marriage, the brief addresses the needs of female married adolescents which are often overlooked by policy-makers. However, it is important to note that unmarried adolescents are progressively engaging in sexual activity in Nepal increasing their risks for contracting an STI or an unplanned pregnancy that warrants special attention.
    Keywords: access to family planning, access to family planning services, adolescent, adolescent access, adolescent friendly services, adolescent girls, adolescent mothers, adolescent ... See More + women, adolescent-friendly services, babies, baby, childbirth, clinics, community health, condom, condoms, contraception, contraceptive distribution, contraceptive needs, contraceptive prevalence, contraceptive use, contraceptives, counseling, DEMAND FOR CONTRACEPTION, demand for contraceptives, demand for family planning, distribution of contraceptives, domestic violence, early childbearing, early marriage, effective contraceptive, emergency contraception, essential health care, ethnic groups, family formation, family members, FAMILY PLANNING, Family Planning demand, family planning methods, Family Planning program, family planning services, female, fertility, fertility regulation, first birth, first births, first sexual experience, health care services, health centers, Health of Adolescents, health posts, health providers, health risks, Health Sector, Health Services, health workers, high-risk, home visits, household surveys, husbands, ideal family size, impact on fertility, informed choice, informed decisions, interpersonal violence, IUD, life skills, Married adolescent girls, MARRIED ADOLESCENTS, married women, medical care, method of contraception, migrant, migrant workers, migration, Ministry of Health, modern contraceptive methods, modern contraceptive use, motherhood, National Family Planning, need for family planning, neonatal mortality, number of children, Nutrition, pediatrics, pharmacies, pill, pills, population data, Population Knowledge, pregnancies, privacy, private clinics, progress, public health, public health programs, quality of care, reproductive age, reproductive health, Reproductive Health of Adolescents, Reproductive Health Status, reproductive issues, reproductive life, reproductive matters, risk groups, sexual activity, Sexual Health, Sexual Health Education, Sexual Violence, Sexual Violence Within Marriage, social norms, unmarried adolescents, unmet Demand, unplanned pregnancies, unplanned pregnancy, unsafe abortions, use of contraception, use of family planning, village health workers, vulnerable populations, work experience, young girls, Young married women, young wives, young women, Youth
    Date: 2015–01
  3. By: Greenwood, Jeremy (University of Pennsylvania); Guner, Nezih (MOVE, Barcelona); Kocharkov, Georgi (University of Konstanz); Santos, Cezar (Getulio Vargas Foundation, Brazil)
    Abstract: Marriage has declined since 1960, with the drop being bigger for non-college educated individuals versus college educated ones. Divorce has increased, more so for the non-college educated. Additionally, positive assortative mating has risen. Income inequality among households has also widened. A unified model of marriage, divorce, educational attainment and married female labor-force participation is developed and estimated to fit the postwar U.S. data. Two underlying driving forces are considered: technological progress in the household sector and shifts in the wage structure. The analysis emphasizes the joint role that educational attainment, married female labor-force participation, and assortative mating play in determining income inequality.
    Keywords: assortative mating, education, married female labor supply, household production, marriage and divorce, inequality
    JEL: E13 J12 J22 O11
    Date: 2015–02
  4. By: Daniel S. Hamermesh
    Abstract: The previously documented trend toward more co- and multi-authored research in economics is partly (perhaps 20 percent) due to different research styles of scholars in different birth cohorts (of different ages). Most of the trend reflects profession-wide changes in research style. Older scholars show greater variation in their research styles than younger ones, who use similar numbers of co-authors in each published paper; but there are no differences across cohorts in scholars’ willingness to work with different coauthors. There are only small gender differences in the impacts of age on numbers of coauthors, but substantial differences on choice of coauthors.
    JEL: A11 B31 J01
    Date: 2015–02
  5. By: Paul Dornan; Martin Woodhead; UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre
    Abstract: This paper contributes longitudinal research evidence on these issues, notably: the impact of structural inequalities on children’s development within households and communities; the ways access to health, education and other key services may reduce or amplify inequalities; and especially evidence on the ways that children’s developmental trajectories diverge from early in life, through to early adulthood.
    Keywords: development; early childhood development; inequity; methodology; poverty; research methods;
    Date: 2015
  6. By: Sajons, Christoph; Clots-Figueras, Irma
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the effect of becoming citizen of the host-country at birth on educational outcomes of immigrant children in Germany. We exploit the introduction of birthright citizenship for newborn children in Germany starting on the 1st of January, 2000, to obtain difference-in-differences estimates for the effect of citizenship on the children s educational performance, in particular, their transition to different tracks of secondary school. Using data from the newly established National Education Panel Study (NEPS), the empirical results indicate an increase in the probability of migrant children to enter the middle school track rather than the lower one. This suggests that growing up with the citizenship of the host country has a beneficial impact on the later integration of migrant children.
    JEL: I21 J24 J15
    Date: 2014
  7. By: Markus P. A. Schneider (Economics Department, University of Denver)
    Abstract: This paper studies the evolution of the earnings distribution from 1995 to 2010 of four major de- mographic groups are considered separately, which shows that there are important differences in the experience of inequality that imply that race and gender are not separable when it comes to understand- ing the distribution of earnings in the US. The main findings are that only white men have experienced changes in within-group inequality that parallel the changes in inequality seen in the overall distribution. By contrast, the black population (male and female) has seen no notable increase in within-group in- equality. The evolution of earnings inequality is also compared to the increase in inequality documented by Thomas Piketty and Emmanuel Saez, and it is shown that earnings inequality has followed a qualita- tively similar, though less extreme trend to total pre-tax income inequality. In the process, the apparent disconnect between the Gini coefficient - which has not changes much - and inequality assessed via the share of income going to the top percent of income earners is clarified.
    Keywords: Dagum Distribution, Earnings Inequality, Gini Coefficient, Income Distribution
    JEL: D31 D63 C46
    Date: 2013–04
  8. By: Maxime Comeau; Denis Latulippe
    Abstract: Methodology to estimate effective retirement age from the labor market has been developed over the last 15 years and is now commonly used for experience review and policy development. However, both transition from work to retirement (including gradual retirement) and the socio-economic environment have evolved over this period which includes the 2008 economic crisis. This paper presents innovative ways to estimate retirement age, in order to better assess effective retirement from employment and not only focus on labor force participation rates. It also makes possible the distinction between retirement from full-time employment vs part-time employment. Results are presented for four countries (Austria and Germany, Ireland and the United Kingdom) with rather diverging experience.
    Keywords: Retirement age, Work-retirement transition, Gradual retirement, Retirement experience, Older workers’employment, Retirement age estimation
    JEL: J26
    Date: 2015

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