nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2014‒12‒13
eight papers chosen by
Michele Battisti
ifo Institut

  1. Housework Share between Partners: Experimental Evidence on Gender Identity By Auspurg, Katrin; Iacovou, Maria; Nicoletti, Cheti
  2. Early Child Care and Child Outcomes: The Role of Grandparents By Del Boca, Daniela; Piazzalunga, Daniela; Pronzato, Chiara D.
  3. Evaluating Workplace Mandates with Flows versus Stocks: An Application to California Paid Family Leave By Curtis, Mark; Hirsch, Barry; Schroeder, Mary C.
  4. Gender equity and the escape from poverty By Prettner, Klaus; Strulik, Holger
  5. Immigration, Search, and Redistribution: A Quantitative Assessment of Native Welfare By Battisti, Michele; Felbermayr, Gabriel; Peri, Giovanni; Poutvaara, Panu
  6. Length of Stay in the Host Country and Educational Achievement of Immigrant Students: The Italian Case By Di Liberto, Adriana
  7. Early Maternal Time Investment and Early Child Outcomes By Del Bono, Emilia; Francesconi, Marco; Kelly, Yvonne; Sacker, Amanda
  8. The Contribution of Behavior Change and Public Health to Improved U.S. Population Health By Susan T. Stewart; David M. Cutler

  1. By: Auspurg, Katrin (Goethe University Frankfurt); Iacovou, Maria (University of Cambridge); Nicoletti, Cheti (University of York)
    Abstract: Using an experimental design, we investigate the reasons behind the gendered division of housework within couples. In particular, we assess whether the fact that women do more housework may be explained by differences in preferences deriving from differences in gender identity between men and women. We find little evidence of any systematic gender differences in the preference for housework, suggesting that the reasons for the gendered division of housework lie elsewhere.
    Keywords: gender, housework, unpaid work, division of labor, experiment
    JEL: J16 J22 C35
    Date: 2014–10
  2. By: Del Boca, Daniela (University of Turin); Piazzalunga, Daniela (University of Turin); Pronzato, Chiara D. (University of Turin)
    Abstract: In this paper, we focus on the impact of early grandparents' care on child cognitive outcomes, in the short and medium term, using data from the Millennium Cohort Study (UK). Compared with children looked after in a formal care centre, children cared by grandparents (as well as parents) are better in naming objects, but worse in tests concerning basic concepts development, problem-solving, mathematical concepts and constructing ability. In order to assess a causal link between early care and child outcomes, we employ panel methods and instrumental variables techniques that confirm that grandparental care matters more for naming ability while formal care is more important for problem-solving ability and basic concepts development. These results hide strong heterogeneities: on the one hand, the positive association between grandparents' care and child outcomes is stronger for children in more advantaged households; on the other hand, the negative association is significant only for children in more disadvantaged households.
    Keywords: grandparents, childcare, child cognitive outcomes
    JEL: J13 D1 I21
    Date: 2014–10
  3. By: Curtis, Mark (Wake Forest University); Hirsch, Barry (Georgia State University); Schroeder, Mary C. (University of Iowa)
    Abstract: Employer mandates and other labor demand/supply shocks typically have small effects on wages and employment. These effects should be more discernible using data on employment transitions and wages among new hires rather than incumbents. The Quarterly Workforce Indicators (QWI) dataset provides county by quarter by demographic group data on the number and earnings of new hires, separations, and recalls (i.e., extended leaves). We use the QWI to examine the labor market effects of California's paid family leave (CPFL) policy. Implemented in July 2004, it was the first such policy mandated in the U.S. The analysis compares outcomes for young women in California to those for other workers in California and to workers throughout the U.S. Relative earnings for young female new hires were largely unaffected by CPFL. We find strong evidence that separations (of at least three months) and hiring of young women increased substantively. Many young women who separated later returned to the same firm. CPFL appears to have led not only to increased time with children, but also to a decline in job lock, enhanced mobility, and increased worker flows following universal paid family leave.
    Keywords: policy evaluation, paid family leave, new hires, wages, employment, turnover
    JEL: J32 J38
    Date: 2014–08
  4. By: Prettner, Klaus; Strulik, Holger
    Abstract: We set up a unified growth model with gender-specific differences in tastes for consumption, fertility, education of daughters and sons, and consider the intra-household bargaining power of spouses. In line with the empirical regularity for less developed countries, we assume that mothers desire to have no more children than fathers and to invest no less in education per child. We then show that female empowerment has the potential to promote the transition from a state of high fertility, low education, and sluggish economic growth towards a state of low fertility, high education, and fast economic growth if the child quantity-quality preferences of spouses differ substantially. In this case targeted policies to empower women have the potential to constitute a successful development strategy. We demonstrate the robustness of this finding with respect to endogenously evolving bargaining power and division of child-rearing time within the household.
    Keywords: female empowerment,intra-household bargaining,fertility transition,education,economic growth
    JEL: J13 J16 O11 O41
    Date: 2014
  5. By: Battisti, Michele (Ifo Institute for Economic Research); Felbermayr, Gabriel (University of Munich); Peri, Giovanni (University of California, Davis); Poutvaara, Panu (University of Munich)
    Abstract: We study the effects of immigration on native welfare in a general equilibrium model featuring two skill types, search frictions, wage bargaining, and a redistributive welfare state. Our quantitative analysis suggests that, in all 20 countries studied, immigration attenuates the effects of search frictions. These gains tend to outweigh the welfare costs of redistribution. Immigration has increased native welfare in almost all countries. Both high-skilled and low-skilled natives benefit in two thirds of countries, contrary to what models without search frictions predict. Average total gains from immigration are 1.25% and 1.00% for high and low skilled natives, respectively.
    Keywords: immigration, search, labor market frictions, fiscal redistribution, cross-country comparisons
    JEL: F22 J61 J64
    Date: 2014–10
  6. By: Di Liberto, Adriana (University of Cagliari)
    Abstract: Using Italian data on language standardized tests for three different levels of schooling we investigate if the observed gap in educational attainments in 1st generation immigrants tends to lower the longer they stay in Italy, and if younger children tend to catch up faster than their older schoolmates. The analysis shows that the significant gap in language skills observed between 1st and 2nd generation immigrant students is mainly due to both the negative performance of immigrant children newly arrived in Italy, and the immigrant students' area of origin. Comparing the results across the different grades, we also find that this gap narrows at a different pace in the early or later years of an immigrant student's life. Overall, our results suggest the presence of a 'critical' age above which 1st generation immigrant students face a negative impact on their school performance, and that institutional and cultural factors play a role on immigrant language skills acquisition.
    Keywords: immigrant students, educational attainment, age at immigration
    JEL: J15 I21
    Date: 2014–10
  7. By: Del Bono, Emilia (ISER, University of Essex); Francesconi, Marco (University of Essex); Kelly, Yvonne (University College London); Sacker, Amanda (University College London)
    Abstract: Using large longitudinal survey data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, this paper estimates the effect of maternal time inputs on early child development. We find that maternal time is a quantitatively important determinant of skill formation and that its effect declines with child age. There is evidence of a long shadow of the effect of early maternal time inputs on later outcomes, especially in the case of cognitive skill development. In the case of non-cognitive development, this effect disappears when we account for skill persistence.
    Keywords: education production functions, early interventions, cognitive and non-cognitive skill formation
    JEL: J24 J15 I20
    Date: 2014–10
  8. By: Susan T. Stewart; David M. Cutler
    Abstract: Adverse behavioral risk factors contribute to a large share of deaths. We examine the effects on life expectancy (LE) and quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) of changes in six major behavioral risk factors over the 1960-2010 period: smoking, obesity, heavy alcohol use, and unsafe use of motor vehicles, firearms, and poisonous substances. These risk factors have moved in opposite directions. Reduced smoking, safer driving and cars, and reduced heavy alcohol use have led to health improvements, which we estimate at 1.82 years of quality-adjusted life. However, these were roughly offset by increased obesity, greater firearm deaths, and increased deaths from poisonous substances, which together reduced quality-adjusted life expectancy by 1.77 years. We model the hypothetical effects of a 50% decline in morbid obesity and in poisoning deaths, and a 10% decline in firearm fatalities, roughly matching favorable trends in smoking and increased seat belt use. These changes would lead to a 0.92 year improvement in LE and a 1.09 year improvement in QALE. Thus, substantial improvements in health by way of behavioral improvements and public health are possible.
    JEL: I1 I10 I12 I18
    Date: 2014–10

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