nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2014‒09‒25
ten papers chosen by
Michele Battisti
ifo Institut

  1. Does It Pay To Be a Woman?: Labour Demand Effects of Maternity-Related Job Protection and Replacement Incomes By Beatrice Scheubel
  2. Imparting and Receiving Violence at Home in Uruguay By Marisa Bucheli; Irene Mussio; Máximo Rossi
  3. Sons and Daughters: Parental Beliefs and Child Behaviour (Evidence from the UK Millennium Cohort Study) By Gurleen Popli; Aki Tsuchiya
  4. Unfinished lives: the effect of domestic violence on neonatal & infant mortality By Menon, Seetha
  5. Migrant diversity, migration motivations and early integration: the case of Poles in Germany, the Netherlands, London and Dublin By Luthra, Renee Reichl; Platt, Lucinda; Salamonska, Justyna
  6. Inequality of opportunity among Egyptian children By Ersado, Lire; Aran, Meltem
  7. Extracurricular educational programs and school readiness: evidence from a quasi-experiment with preschool children By Anna Makles; Kerstin Schneider
  8. Who assimilates? Statistical artefacts and intergenerational mobility in immigrant families By Luthra, Renee Reichl; Soehl, Thomas
  9. Survival Analysis of Very Low Birth Weight Infant Mortality in Taiwan By Chang, C.; Chen, W.; McAleer, M.J.
  10. Another View of Sprawl from Space By Joseph DeSalvo; Qing Su

  1. By: Beatrice Scheubel
    Abstract: In countries with strong employment protection laws it is often considered to be unwise to hire a woman in childbearing age because she might get pregnant. However, such labour demand e ects of job protection measures related to maternity leave are often rather anecdotal. To provide analytical evidence, this paper studies the impact of changes in maternity-related job protection in Germany on employment opportunities for women in childbearing age without children for whom the observed e ects should be largely demand-related. Exogenous, discrete policy changes in the German labour market of the 1980s and 1990s constitute the setting for a difference-in-differences analysis of the transition into employment as well as wages. The data for this study are taken from the German Socio-Economic Panel and from the German Microcensus. Doubling the job-protected leave period from 6 months to 12 months between 1986 and 1988 led to an approximately 6% lower probability of being hired for women in childbearing age without a university degree.In addition, I nd a 5-10% increase in wages for women in childbearing age associated with the latter reform. Since this effect disappears when controlling for having a child in the future, this may indicate an increased need to signal commitment by increased effort after the reform.
    Keywords: Maternity leave legislation, gender pay gap, education, unemployment, difference-in-differences with group-correlated errors, quasi-natural experiment
    JEL: J64 J18 J16 J31 K31
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Marisa Bucheli (Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República); Irene Mussio (Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República); Máximo Rossi (Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República)
    Abstract: The use of moderate physical violence while raising children is an extended practice, accepted as a disciplinary measure. Nevertheless, there is evidence that these practices during childhood produce negative effects in different areas of adult life. This motivates the analysis of the intergenerational transmission of this conduct. We used the survey Encuesta de Situaciones Familiares carried out in 2007 funded by the Research and Innovation National Agency in Uruguay (ANII) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). The main purpose of the ESF was to gather information about marriage and divorce, work, fertility, work, child-rearing and children's welfare outcomes, including education, health, and psycho-social development. In our study for the Uruguayan case, we find that for women, the experience of physical punishment during childhood increases the probability of having similar attitudes when raising one's children. This probability increases when the woman has a positive attitude towards punishment as a disciplinary measure. We do not find similar effects of past experiences in the case of men.
    Keywords: violencia, hogar, niños, golpeado, castigos
    JEL: J12 J13 D0
    Date: 2013–07
  3. By: Gurleen Popli (Department of Economics, University of Sheffield); Aki Tsuchiya (Department of Economics, University of Sheffield)
    Abstract: An extensive literature exists exploring the determinants of child behaviour, with increasing interest in its links with parental characteristics and beliefs. In this paper we explore a particular aspect of this relationship by looking at the parents' beliefs regarding how to treat boys and girls. A question in the third wave of the UK Millennium Cohort Study asks both the mother and father of 5-year olds whether they agree to the statement: 'Sons in families should be given more encouragement than daughters to do well at school'. We model both the determinants of parent's beliefs, as captured by this question; and the impact of these beliefs on the behaviour of 7 year old boys and girls, separately. The key findings of the paper suggest that parental agreement to the above statement does not have an impact on boys' behaviour; however, it has a detrimental impact on the behaviour of girls.
    Keywords: non-cognitive outcomes; parental beliefs; gender; ethnicity
    JEL: J13 J16 I31
    Date: 2014–09
  4. By: Menon, Seetha
    Abstract: India accounts for 1.7 million child deaths, a quarter of global child mortality. The current literature has succeeded in establishing an association between domestic violence and child mortality, but has yet to present evidence of a causal relationship. In this paper we use an instrumental variable approach to analyse the causal impact of domestic violence against the mother on child mortality in the Indian context. Domestic violence is instrumented with the real price of gold at the time of marriage of the mother. Results lend evidence to a bias in OLS estimates and show a significant positive relationship between domestic violence and mortality. A one standard deviation increase in domestic violence translates to a 6 percentage point increase in both neonatal and infant mortality.
    Date: 2014–08–18
  5. By: Luthra, Renee Reichl; Platt, Lucinda; Salamonska, Justyna
    Abstract: This paper demonstrates the relationship between migration motivations and intended durations of stay and subsequent early integration among recent east-west European migrants. We use a unique, four-country data source covering over 3,500 recently arrived (previous 18 months) Polish immigrants. First we use a data reduction technique to allocate the migrants to six migrant types according to their motivations, intended duration of stay, and previous migration history. Second, we link these migrant types to pre-migration characteristics such as gender, age, and region of origin. Third, we explore how the migrant types are associated with social, subjective, and economic measures of integration.
    Date: 2014–04–29
  6. By: Ersado, Lire; Aran, Meltem
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the level and trends in inequality of opportunity among Egyptian children during the 2000s. The analysis uses severall tools, including comparison of the distributions of early risks and outcomes across circumstance groups; estimation of the human opportunity index; measurement of the relative contributions of circumstances to inequality of opportunity; and decomposition of changes in inequality of opportunity and factors driving them over time. Egypt has made significant progress in the availability of and access to basic services for children and mothers, in some cases with an overall pro-poor effect. In particular, appreciable improvements have been made in healthcare utilization before and during pregnancy and immunizations. As a result, there has been a decline in inequality of opportunity over the past decade, largely attributable to increased coverage by basic services rather than through redistributive effects. However, there are areas of persistent and emerging concerns, including postnatal care utilization, nutrition, and schooling. Nutrition indicators have deteriorated during the 2000s, affecting a quarter of children regardless of their circumstances. Wide disparities in school enrollment persist, notably at the higher levels. Large regional disparities in access to basic infrastructure exist, with Upper Egypt and the Frontier Governorates lagging the rest of the country. Family background, especially parents'education and wealth, and geographic factors are key factors affecting child development outcomes in Egypt. While interventions targeted at the less advantaged circumstance groups may offer significant potential for enhancing overall equity in postnatal care utilization and schooling, a more inclusive approach would be needed to improve child nutrition outcomes.
    Keywords: Health Monitoring&Evaluation,Population Policies,Primary Education,Early Child and Children's Health,Adolescent Health
    Date: 2014–09–01
  7. By: Anna Makles (Wuppertal Research Institute for the Economics of Education (WIB), University of Wuppertal, Gaußstraße 20, 42119 Wuppertal, Germany); Kerstin Schneider (Wuppertal Research Institute for the Economics of Education (WIB), University of Wuppertal, Gaußstraße 20, 42119 Wuppertal, Germany)
    Abstract: This paper adds to the literature on extracurricular early childhood education and child development by exploiting unique data on an educational project in Germany, the Junior University (JU). Utilizing a quasi-experimental study design, we estimate the causal short-term effect of JU enrollment on cognitive outcomes and show that attending extra science courses with preschool classes leads to significantly higher school readiness. Although the size of the effect is relatively small, the results are plausible and pass various robustness checks. Moreover, in comparison with other programs this intervention is cost-effective.
    Keywords: early childhood education, early interventions, school readiness
    JEL: I20 I21 I28 J13
    Date: 2014–09
  8. By: Luthra, Renee Reichl; Soehl, Thomas
    Abstract: This paper assesses estimates of immigrant intergenerational mobility that are based on aggregate data sources. We show that aggregation bias strongly inflates estimates of the relationship between immigrants’ educational attainment and the educational attainment of their children. Compared to natives, the educational transmission process between parent and child is much weaker in immigrant families. A number of group-level processes, such as societal discrimination, ethnic segregation, or ethnic networks, may render group characteristics more important predictors of second generation educational attainment than parental education.
    Date: 2014–08–18
  9. By: Chang, C.; Chen, W.; McAleer, M.J.
    Abstract: __Abstract__ This paper examines the determinants of very low birth weight infant (or neonatal) mortality using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database from 1997 to 2009. After infants are discharged from hospital, it is not possible to track their mortality, so the Cox proportional hazard model is used to analyze the very low birth weight infant mortality rate. In order to clarify treatment responsibility and to avoid selective referral effects, we use the number of infants treated in the preceding five years to observe the effect of a physician’s and hospital’s medical experience on the mortality rate of hospitalized minimal birth weight infants. The empirical results show that, given disease control variables, a higher infant weight, higher quality hospitals, increased hospital medical experience, and higher investment in pediatrics can reduce the mortality rate significantly. However, an increased physician’s medical experience does not seem to influence significantly the very low birth weight infant mortality rate.
    Keywords: Very low birth weight, Neonatal mortality, Physician’s infant experience, Hospital infant experience, Statistical analysis, Cox proportional hazard model, Selective referral, Taiwan National Health Insurance Scheme
    JEL: C14 I10 I18
    Date: 2014–06–01
  10. By: Joseph DeSalvo (Department of Economics, University of South Florida); Qing Su (Department of Marketing, Economics and Sports Business, Northern Kentucky University)
    Abstract: Burchfield, et al., “Causes of Sprawl: A Portrait from Space,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, CXXI (2006), 587–633, show that variables chosen from the monocentric model and its generalizations as well as those capturing geographical and political characteristics of urban areas are important in explaining urban sprawl, as measured by an index of the amount of undeveloped land around an average dwelling. Although Burchfield, et al., draw on the urban monocentric model and its extensions, they do not, with one exception, employ the exogenous variables of that model. On the other hand, with one recent exception, urban economists do not use geographical and political characteristics to explain sprawl, defined as the spatial size of the urban area. We were interested, therefore, in seeing if combining these two sets of variables better explains these two measures of sprawl. The main findings of this paper are (1) the standard monocentric model variables fail to contribute to an explanation of the sprawl index, (2) these variables are, however, very important in explaining the spatial size of urban areas, and (3) the Burchfield, et al., variables contribute to an explanation of the spatial size of urban areas. We conclude with a summary and some comments on the role of theory in providing empirically testable hypotheses. We call for efforts to develop a theory comparable to the monocentric model to explain the Burchfield, et al. (2006), measure of sprawl.
    JEL: R12 R13 R14
    Date: 2013–11

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