nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2014‒08‒25
six papers chosen by
Michele Battisti
ifo Institut

  1. Gender inequality at home when mothers work. The case of Italy By Adele Menniti; Pietro Demurtas; Serena Arima; Alessandra De Rose
  2. Age at Immigration and High School Dropouts By Cohen Goldner, Sarit; Epstein, Gil S.
  3. Bargaining power and biofortification: The role of gender in adoption of orange sweet potato in Uganda: By Gilligan, Daniel O.; Kumar, Neha; McNiven, Scott; Meenakshi, J.V.; Quisumbing, Agnes R.
  4. Manufacturing Growth and the Lives of Bangladeshi Women By Rachel Heath; A. Mushfiq Mobarak
  5. Introduction: European labour markets in times of crisis: A gender perspective By Hélène Périvier-Timbeau; Anne Eydoux; Antoine Math
  6. Gender Equality and Economic Growth in Brazil By Pierre-Richard Agénor; Otaviano Canuto

  1. By: Adele Menniti (Institute for Research on Population and Social Policy); Pietro Demurtas (Institute for Research on Population and Social Policy); Serena Arima (Department of Methods and Models for Economics, Territory and Finance MEMOTEF, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy)); Alessandra De Rose (Department of Methods and Models for Economics, Territory and Finance MEMOTEF, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy))
    Abstract: This article focuses on the gender gap in housework and childcare in Italian couples, one of the widest in Europe. Italian women still carry out three-quarters of domestic work and two-thirds of childcare. Following a considerable amount of literature, we focus on three possible theoretical explanations for the persistence of the gendered division of labor: time availability, relative resources, and conformity with traditional gender ideology. Time Use data from the 2008/09 Survey edition have been used: we considered couples, married or in consensual unions, with at least one child under 14 years of age and with the mother employed. The amount of time spent by men and women on, respectively, domestic tasks and on caring for children has been modeled as a function of several couples and household characteristics. Similarly, we analyzed the women’s share of total time for housework and childcare, respectively, as dependent variables. In order to take into account the truncated nature of the dependent variables a Tobit model has been used. Results show that the family division of work is heavily biased towards women, and it is only when they take on the role of breadwinner that the amount of time their unemployed male partners spend on domestic tasks increases. Generally, when the financial resources of women are greater than those of men, they reduce the time spent on housework and gender asymmetry decreases. With regard to childcare, the gender gap is significantly reduced only when the man is unemployed and in territorial contexts where the gender system and ideology are less traditional.
    Keywords: Time use, Housework, Childcare, Gender, Tobit model.
    JEL: D13 C34 J7
  2. By: Cohen Goldner, Sarit (Bar-Ilan University); Epstein, Gil S. (Bar-Ilan University)
    Abstract: We focus on high school dropout rate among male and female immigrant children. We consider the relationship between the dropout rate and age of arrival of the immigrants. Using repeated cross sectional data from the Israeli Labor Force Surveys of 1996-2011 we show that the share of high school dropouts among immigrant children who arrived from the Former Soviet Union during 1989-1994 is at least as double than among natives in the same age group. Further, we show that among immigrant youth there is a monotonic negative relation between age at arrival and the share of high school dropouts. To understand our results we present a theoretical framework that links between age at arrival in the host country, language proficiency, quality of education and wages.
    Keywords: immigrants, age at arrival, high-school dropouts
    JEL: I21 J24 J61
    Date: 2014–08
  3. By: Gilligan, Daniel O.; Kumar, Neha; McNiven, Scott; Meenakshi, J.V.; Quisumbing, Agnes R.
    Abstract: We examine the role of gender in adoption and diffusion of orange sweet potato, a biofortified staple food crop being promoted as a strategy to increase dietary intakes of vitamin A among young children and adult women in Uganda. As an agricultural intervention with nutrition objectives, intrahousehold gender dynamics regarding decisions about crop choice and child feeding practices may play a role in adoption decisions. Also, most households access sweet potato vines through informal exchange, suggesting again that gender dimensions of networks may be important to diffusion of the crop. We use data from an experimental impact evaluation of the introduction of OSP in Uganda to study how female bargaining power, measured by share of land and nonland assets controlled by women, affect adoption and diffusion decisions.
    Keywords: Gender, Women, technology adoption, Biofortification, Nutrition, Vitamin A, Micronutrients, Sweet potato,
    Date: 2014
  4. By: Rachel Heath; A. Mushfiq Mobarak
    Abstract: We study the effects of explosive growth in the Bangladeshi ready-made garments industry on the lives on Bangladeshi women. We compare the marriage, childbearing, school enrollment and employment decisions of women who gain greater access to garment sector jobs to women living further away from factories, to years before the factories arrive close to some villages, and to the marriage and enrollment decisions of their male siblings. Girls exposed to the garment sector delay marriage and childbirth. This stems from (a) young girls becoming more likely to be enrolled in school after garment jobs (which reward literacy and numeracy) arrive, and (b) older girls becoming more likely to be employed outside the home in garment-proximate villages. The demand for education generated through manufacturing growth appears to have a much larger effect on female educational attainment compared to a large-scale government conditional cash transfer program to encourage female schooling.
    JEL: F16 I25 J12 J23 O12
    Date: 2014–08
  5. By: Hélène Périvier-Timbeau (OFCE); Anne Eydoux (Centre d'études de l'emploi); Antoine Math (Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales)
    Abstract: The crisis that began in 2008 has hit European countries diversely, causing economic and labour market disequilibria of more or less magnitude. As with past global crises, the current one has gendered implications. While women’s employment is said to have been preserved relative to men’s in the early stage of a recession, austerity plans implemented in several countries to limit public deficits and debts are deemed to affect female workers more deeply. How gendered are labour market changes in recession and austerity and how should cross-country differences be analysed?
    Date: 2014–04
  6. By: Pierre-Richard Agénor; Otaviano Canuto
    Keywords: Gender - Gender and Development Rural Development Knowledge and Information Systems Health, Nutrition and Population - Population Policies Gender - Gender and Law Gender - Gender and Health Rural Development
    Date: 2013–03

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