nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2014‒08‒09
six papers chosen by
Michele Battisti
University of Munich

  1. Gender Bias and Child Labor in LDCs By Alok Kumar; Emma Underhill
  2. Early child care and child outcomes: the role of grandparents. Evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study By Daniela Del Boca; Daniela Piazzalunga; Chiara Daniela Pronzato
  3. Family Structure and the Education Gender Gap: Evidence from Italian Provinces By Graziella Bertocchi; Monica Bozzano
  4. Workforce Aging and the Labour Market Opportunities of Youth: Evidence from Canada By Sundip Dhanjal, Tammy Schirle
  5. Family Migration and Relative Earnings Potentials By Mette Foged
  6. Age at Immigration and High School Dropouts By Sarit Cohen Goldner; Gil S. Epstein

  1. By: Alok Kumar (Department of Economics, University of Victoria); Emma Underhill
    Abstract: Empirical evidence suggests that girls work more than boys as child labor. In this paper, we develop a model to analyze the causes and consequences of the gender differentials in child labor. In particular, we analyze the effects of gender bias on child labor. We find that when parents can give strictly positive bequests to both boys and girls, son preference on its own does not lead to gender differential in child labor. Only when parents cannot give bequests, girls work more than boys as child labor. On the other hand, if there are gender differences in earnings functions, then children with superior earnings function work less than children with inferior earnings function. Our analysis shows that not only the existence of gender bias, but also its form is important for gender differentials in child labor.
    Keywords: gender differential in child labor, gender bias, efficiency, bequests, human capital
    JEL: J22 I20 D60
    Date: 2014–07–25
  2. By: Daniela Del Boca; Daniela Piazzalunga; Chiara Daniela Pronzato
    Abstract: In this paper, we focus on the impact of early grandparents’ care on child cognitive outcomes, in the short and medium term, using data from the Millennium Cohort Study (UK). Compared with children looked after in a formal care centre, children cared by grandparents (as well as parents) are better in naming objects, but worse in tests concerning basic concepts development, problem-solving, mathematical concepts and constructing ability. These results hide strong heterogeneities: on the one hand, the positive association between family care and child outcomes is stronger for children in more advantaged households; on the other hand, the negative association is significant only for children in more disadvantaged households. In order to assess a causal link between early care and child outcomes, we employ panel methods and instrumental variables techniques. The results we obtain confirm the cross section results.
    Date: 2014
  3. By: Graziella Bertocchi; Monica Bozzano
    Abstract: We investigate the determinants of the education gender gap in Italy in historical perspective with a focus on the influence of family structure. We capture the latter with two indicators: residential habits (nuclear vs. complex families) and inheritance rules (partition vs. primogeniture). After controlling for economic, institutional, religious, and cultural factors, we find that over the 1861- 1901 period family structure is a driver of the education gender gap, with a higher female to male enrollment rate ratio in upper primary schools being associated with nuclear residential habits and equal partition of inheritance. We also find that only the effect of inheritance rules persists over the 1971-2001 period.
    Keywords: Child Development; Time Allocation; Income Transfers; Conditional Cash Transfers
    Date: 2014
  4. By: Sundip Dhanjal, Tammy Schirle (Wilfrid Laurier University)
    Abstract: In this study, we investigate whether an aging workforce affects the job opportunities of youth. Provincial data from the 1976-2013 Labour Force Surveys and a fixed-effects model is used to estimate the effect of the share of the adult male labour force that is aged 55 to 69 on the employment and unemployment rates of men aged 25 to 29. We estimate effects on other labour market outcomes including wages and school enrolment, and other samples of younger men and women. There is no evidence to suggest that a growing share of older workers negatively affects the decisions or outcomes of youth in the labour market. To the contrary, there is weak evidence to suggest an aging population has a positive effect on the labour market outcomes of youth.
    Keywords: Population aging, employment, unemployment, youth
    JEL: J11 J21
    Date: 2014–06–01
  5. By: Mette Foged (University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: I document that couples are more likely to migrate if household income is disproportionally due to one partner, and that families react equally strong to a male and female relative earnings advantage. A unitarian model of family migration in which families may discount wives’ private gains is used to derive testable implications regarding the type of couples that select into migrating. The empirical tests show that gender-neutral family migration cannot be rejected against the alternative of husband-centered migration. The lower response of family migration to the human capital held wives than the human capital of husbands, documented in the literature, may be attributed to more intense colocation problems and lower income among female-headed households. The more severe colocation problem stems from stronger educational homogamy among highly educated women relative to highly educated men. The results hold for internal as well as international migration of couples
    Keywords: Internationalmigration,familymigration,colocationproblem,selection
    JEL: F22 D19 J61
    Date: 2014–07
  6. By: Sarit Cohen Goldner (Bar-Ilan University); Gil S. Epstein (Bar Ilan University)
    Abstract: We focus on high school dropout rate among male and female immigrant children. We consider the relationship between the dropout rate and age of arrival of the immigrants. Using repeated cross sectional data from the Israeli Labor Force Surveys of 1996-2011 we show that the share of high school dropouts among immigrant children who arrived from the Former Soviet Union during 1989-1994 is at least as double than among natives in the same age group. Further, we show that among immigrant youth there is a monotonic negative relation between age at arrival and the share of high school dropouts. To understand our results we present a theoretical framework that links between age at arrival in the host country, language proficiency, quality of education and wages.
    Keywords: Immigrants, age at arrival, high-school dropouts
    JEL: I21 J24 J61
    Date: 2014–08

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