nep-dem New Economics Papers
on Demographic Economics
Issue of 2013‒09‒25
nine papers chosen by
Clarence Nkengne Tsimpo
University of Montreal and World Bank Group

  1. Twin Transitions By Aksan, Anna-Maria; Chakraborty, Shankha
  2. Beruflicher Wiedereinstieg von Frauen nach familienbedingter Erwerbsunterbrechung: Befunde der Evaluation des ESF-Programms "Perspektive Wiedereinstieg" des Bundesministeriums für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend By Diener, Katharina; Götz, Susanne; Schreyer, Franziska; Stephan, Gesine
  3. Loved Ones Matter: Family Effects and Stock Market Participation By Hellström, Jörgen; Zetterdahl, Emma; Hanes, Niklas
  4. Women and Corporate Governance : Towards a New Model! By Viviane De Beaufort; Lucy Summers
  5. Returns to Elite Higher Education in the Marriage Market: Evidence from Chile By Katja Maria Kaufmann; Matthias Messner; Alex Solis
  6. Alternative vs. current measures of material deprivation at EU level: What differences does it make? By Anne-Catherine Guio; Erik Marlier
  7. Are young borrowers bad borrowers? Evidence from the Credit CARD Act of 2009 By Peter Debbaut; Andra C. Ghent; Marianna Kudlyak
  8. Rail passengers’ time use and utility assessment: 2010 findings from Great Britain with multivariate analysis By Susilo, Yusak O.; Lyons, Glenn; Jain, Juliet; Atkins, Steve
  9. Comparing rail passengers’ travel time use in Great Britain between 2004 and 2010 By Lyons, Glenn; Jain , Juliet; Susilo , Yusak O.; Atkins, Steve

  1. By: Aksan, Anna-Maria; Chakraborty, Shankha
    Abstract: We provide a new explanation for sub-Saharan Africa’s slow demographic and economic change. In a model where children die from infectious disease, childhood health affects human capital and noninfectious-disease related adult mortality. When child mortality falls from lower prevalence, as in western Europe, labor productivity improves, fertility falls and the economy prospers. When it falls mainly from better cures, as in sub-Saharan Africa, survivors are less healthy and there is little economic payoff. The model quantitatively explains sub-Saharan Africa’s experience. More generally it shows that life expectancy at birth is a poor indicator of population health unless morbidity falls with mortality.
    Keywords: Demographic Transition, Epidemiological Transition, Mortality, Morbidity, Fertility
    JEL: I10 I12 J13 O40
    Date: 2013–05–27
  2. By: Diener, Katharina (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Götz, Susanne (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Schreyer, Franziska (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Stephan, Gesine (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany])
    Abstract: "This report presents findings of the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the pilot program 'Perspective of Women's Re-entry into the Labor Market', conducted by the Institute for Employment Research (IAB). The pilot program aims at supporting the re-entry of women into the labor market after a family-related absence from employment for at least three years. Managed by the Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth in cooperation with the German Federal Employment Office, the program was implemented across Germany by 28 project executing agencies with partially different concepts. This report refers to the first funding period of the program from March 2009 to February 2012. The findings of the quantitative evaluation are based on altogether five panel surveys of two cohort samples of women participating in the model program as well as a potential comparison group of women who are clients of the Federal Employment Agency (non-participating women). Despite a careful selection of similar nonparticipating women, both groups will probably consist of women with different labor market aspirations: The program aims at women who are in need of orientation services to re-enter the job market. Non-participating women have at least contact to a jobcenter. This does, however, not necessarily imply that they are keen to re-enter the labor market, and they might be in need of orientation services, too." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Date: 2013–09–19
  3. By: Hellström, Jörgen (Umeå School of Business and Economics); Zetterdahl, Emma (Department of Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics); Hanes, Niklas (Department of Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics)
    Abstract: In this paper new and detailed empirical evidence on the impact of family on individuals’ stock market participation decision is provided. Since influence is likely to vary systematically over different types of individuals the heterogeneous effect of social interaction, in a setting including both community as well as within-family effects, is further examined. The main results indicate that individuals’ likelihood for subsequent participation increases (decreases) following positive (negative) parental and partner stock market experiences. The effect of social interaction is further found to be of relatively greater importance for individuals with relatively lower levels of financial literacy and for individuals with an on average higher level of interpersonal trust. In terms of gender, both male and female participation is positively affected by family influence, while community effects mainly pertain to males.
    Keywords: Family effects; Investor behavior; Peer effect; Social interaction; Social influence; Stock market participation
    JEL: D83 G11
    Date: 2013–09–19
  4. By: Viviane De Beaufort (Public and Private Policy Department - ESSEC Business School); Lucy Summers (University of Queensland - University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia)
    Abstract: The feminization of Boards has the potential to be a vector of change, bringing "added value" to organisations through gender diversity, thus creating greater efficiency. Promoting women to positions of power only makes sense, however, if these women are allowed to bring, in terms of skills and behavior, a difference to the table. This involves confronting the masculine model, in order to BUILD a model of mixed leadership integrating the "feminine" quotient (A.Arcier). A qualitative study on women and their relation to power, undertaken in France and abroad (published in October 2012), allowed the formulation of some hypotheses in order to construct a proposition of a mixed power model that would integrate both masculine and feminine "polarities" within enterprises and organisations (ValérieRocoplan).This article is the outcome of various influences: the data of this study (by the same author with the support of the firm Boyden) which was further enriched by the analysis of other publications on the subject, as well as the experience acquired within the framework of the program Women Be European Board Ready (created by ESSEC). The article deliberately focuses on the issues surrounding gender and governance in order to address the smooth and effective running of Boards. The study essentially aims to highlight the fact that women wishing to obtain these mandates, or those who have reached these posts, share a rigorous and idealised vision of the functioning of the Boards and demand a model based on "sustainable governance" that is better adapted to the challenges which Boards face in our corporate world of upheaval. These women are potential "engines" for change.
    Keywords: Corporate Governance ; Leadership ; Board Composition ; Corporate Productivity ; Firm-Level Governance Outcomes ; Sustainable Governance ; International Corporate Governance ; Cross-Boarder Corporate Governance Issues ; evolution of models of governance ; women and boards ; non-executive board members ; gender dimension ; women and power.
    Date: 2013
  5. By: Katja Maria Kaufmann; Matthias Messner; Alex Solis
    Abstract: In this paper we estimate the marriage market returns to being admitted to a higher ranked (i.e. more ”elite”) university by exploiting unique features of the Chilean university admission system.This system centrally allocates applicants based on their university entrance test score, which allows us to identify causal effects by using a regression discontinuity approach. Moreover, the Chilean context provides us with the necessary data on the long run outcome ‘partner quality’. We find that being admitted to a higher ranked university has substantial returns in terms of partner quality for women, while estimates for men are about half the size and not significantly different from zero. JEL-Classification: I23, I24, J12. Keywords: Returns to education quality, higher education, marriage market, regression discontinuity, Chile.
    Date: 2013
  6. By: Anne-Catherine Guio; Erik Marlier
    Abstract: Guio, Gordon and Marlier (2012) have proposed a theory based analytical framework for developing robust (i.e. suitable, reliable, valid and additive) aggregate indicators that could be used for analytical and monitoring purposes at national and EU levels. They have applied this framework to EU-SILC data collected in 2009, and as a result of their systematic item by item analysis carried out at both EU and country levels, they have suggested an alternative material deprivation (MD) indicator which consists of 13 items – six are common to the current 9-item MD indicator and seven are new. This paper discusses the impact of the move from the current EU definition of MD to this alternative 13-item indicator – impact in terms of the size of the population deprived throughout the EU, impact in terms of the composition (socio-demographic characteristics) of this population as well as impact on the Europe 2020 social inclusion target.
    Keywords: Poverty, material deprivation, Europe 2020 social inclusion target, EU-SILC
    JEL: O52 I32
    Date: 2013–08
  7. By: Peter Debbaut; Andra C. Ghent; Marianna Kudlyak
    Abstract: Young borrowers are the least experienced financially and, conventionally, thought to be most prone to financial mistakes. We study the relationship between age and financial problems related to credit cards. Our results challenge the notion that young borrowers are bad borrowers. We show that young borrowers are among the least likely to experience a serious credit card default. We then exploit the 2009 CARD Act to identify which individuals self-select into obtaining a credit card early in life. We find that individuals who choose early credit card use default less and are more likely to get a mortgage while young.
    Date: 2013
  8. By: Susilo, Yusak O. (KTH); Lyons, Glenn (University of the West of England); Jain, Juliet (University of the West of England); Atkins, Steve (University of the West of England)
    Abstract: Using data from Great Britain’s National Passenger Survey 2010 this paper examines the travel time use of rail passengers and their indicative assessment of its utility. The paper explores the impacts of individuals’ socio demographic characteristics, types of activity undertaken and the perceived difficulties that may be faced by the travellers on their assessment of travel time use utility. The study shows that only 13% of travellers considered their travel time as wasted. However, this varies by journey purpose, travelling class (first/standard class), gender and journey length. The study shows that the positive or negative appreciation by passengers of their journey time is not only a result of various combinations of on-board activity engagements, but also the smoothness of overall journey experience. Being able to work/study on the train most significantly increases individual appreciation of time use. However, a delay on an individual’s train journey also has a major influence in reducing his/her perceived value of travel time spent. ICT devices that enable travellers to watch film/video or play games or check emails are more appreciated than those providing access to music/podcast or access to social networking sites. The paper joins others in questioning assumptions made in economic appraisal that travel time is unproductive. It concludes with a call for more substantive and targeted data collection efforts within travel behaviour research devoted to further unravelling the phenomenon of the positive utility of travel.
    Keywords: Travel time use; Rail passenger; Journey satisfaction; Great Britain
    JEL: R40 R42
    Date: 2013–09–23
  9. By: Lyons, Glenn (University of the West of England); Jain , Juliet (University of the West of England); Susilo , Yusak O. (KTH); Atkins, Steve
    Abstract: This paper provides a unique insight into aspects of stability and change regarding the travel time use of rail passengers in Great Britain between 2004 and 2010. Empirical evidence is presented on how rail passengers spend their time, how worthwhile they consider their time use to be, the extent of advance planning of their time use and how equipped for time use they are in terms of the items they have to hand when they travel. The results reveal a consistent dominance of reading for leisure, window gazing/people watching and working/studying as favoured travel time activities. Over the six year period the availability and use of mobile technologies has increased. Listening to music in particular has doubled in its incidence suggesting an increasing capacity for travellers to personalise the public space of the railway carriage. Most notably the analysis reveals a substantial increase in the proportion of travellers overall making very worthwhile use of their time.
    Keywords: Travel time use; Multitasking; Rail travel; Value of time; Mobile technologies
    JEL: R40 R42
    Date: 2013–09–23

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